Agricultural producer support estimates for developing countries: measurement issues and evidence from India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam
By examining and comparing agricultural policies in India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam, this study helps fill a significant gap in development research. The report provides an assessment of conceptual and measurement issues related to the effects of trade and domestic-support policies and policy reforms on the incentives of agricultural producers and presents empirical estimates of the degree of protection or disprotection in the four countries. From India's countercyclical policy outcomes and Indonesia's high levels of agricultural protection, to the trend toward modest support of agriculture in China and Vietnam, the report's results demonstrate both how changes in agricultural policy can improve farmers' incentives as economic growth occurs and how difficult it is to reform entrenched policy interventions. Through such findings, the report contributes to policy discussions on creating propoor policies related to agricultural support and trade, both at the domestic level and in international negotiations.
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agricul agricultural policy Agricultural Producer Support agricultural production agricultural sector agricultural support analysis budgetary payments China China's agricultural commodities by China commodities by India commodities by Indonesia commodities by Vietnam commodity-specific MPS Components of MPS Cote d'lvoire countercyclical counterfactual PSEs crops David Orden Definitions and sources developing countries domestic prices domestic support economic effect and counterfactual effects of exchange estimates for Indonesia Evidence from India exchange rate misalignment exportables hypothesis farmers Food Policy Research Gulati IFPRI research Imports of major India total PSE input subsidies International Food Policy maize major agricultural commodities Market price support measurement issues MPS and PSEs MPS estimates Nguyen OECD palm oil percent Policy Research Institute Producer Support Estimates Production of major protection or disprotection PSE for Indonesia PSE under various PSEs for India Rice MPS selected agricultural subsidies in India Summary tariff Vietnam World Bank world prices World Trade Organization Zhu Ling