Aid, the Incentive Regime, and Poverty Reduction, Issue 1937
World Bank, Development Research Group, Macroeconomics and Growth, 1998 - Ayuda estatal - 16 pages
June 1998 Aid spurs growth and poverty reduction only in a good policy environment so it should be targeted to countries that have improved their economic policy. That aid tends to be allocated relatively indiscriminately is one factor that undermines its potential impact. Spurring growth in the developing world is one stated objective of foreign aid. Another, more commonly cited, objective is reducing poverty. Generally poverty reduction and growth go hand in hand, but could aid mitigate poverty without measurably affecting growth? Burnside and Dollar examine how foreign aid affects infant mortality-an important social indicator that provides indirect evidence that the benefits of development are reaching people everywhere. They conclude that in developing countries with weak economic management-evidenced by poor property rights, high levels of corruption, closed trade regimes, and macroeconomic instability-there is no relationship between aid and the change in infant mortality. In distorted environments, development projects promoted by donors tend to fail. And aid resources are typically fungible, so the aid does not in fact finance these projects. Aid finances the whole public sector at the margin, which is why the quality of management is the key to effective assistance. A government that cannot put effective development policies in place is unlikely to oversee the effective use of foreign aid. On the other hand, there is a relationship between aid and a change in infant mortality when the recipient country has relatively good management. When management is good, additional aid worth 1 percent of GDP has a powerful effect, reducing infant mortality by 0.9 percent. In other words, aid spurs growth and improvements in social indicators only in a good policy environment. These findings strengthen the case for targeting foreign aid to countries that have improved their economic policy. But after controlling for per capita income and population, there has been almost no relationship between countries' economic policies and the amount of aid they get. The relatively indiscriminate allocation of assistance is one factor undermining the potential impact of aid. This paper-a product of Macroeconomics and Growth, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to examine aid effectiveness. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project Economic Policies and the Effectiveness of Foreign Aid (RPO 681-70). The authors may be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
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2SLS aid and growth aid interacted aid on infant aid relative Aid x Policy amount of aid April 1998 April Burnside and Dollar capita income change in infant closed trade regimes decline in infant depends on initial developing countries diminishing marginal returns econometric economic policies effect of aid effect on growth effective assistance Ethnic fractionalization Figure finance Ghana growth rates growth regressions high return human capital ICRGE impact of aid important social indicator income levels Indonesia infant mortality depends initial conditions institutional instrument for aid international capital markets investments levels of corruption low-income countries macro policies main finding Mali Management Index measure of aid middle-income countries OLS regression policies into place policy countries policy index poor policy environment positive coefficient poverty reduction Pritchett Ravallion real PPP GDP relationship between aid return to capital Sintim-Aboagye standard errors Sub-Saharan Africa Tanzania technical assistance World Bank worldbank.org Zambia