Air Service Medical Manual ...

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1918 - Aviation medicine - 38 pages
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Page 23 - Herlit/ka among the Italians, had been studying for years the physical deterioriations peculiar to flying which, even early in the war, so emphasized the military importance of this particular problem of the Air Service. The keynote of the American Air Medical Service is the handling of the flier as an INDIVIDUAL. During the early part of the war the German method of air fighting was patterned after that of their infantry ; the pilot of the machine received his commands and carried them out regardless...
Page 25 - In the course of 25 to 30 minutes he lowers the oxygen content of the air in this tank to 8 or 7 per cent, which is equivalent to attaining altitudes of 25,000 to 28,000 feet. Another method of attaining the same result is by means of the diluting apparatus, which supplies directly to a mask over the face whatever proportions are desired for a mixture of air and nitrogen. All of these tests have been standardized and confirmed by the lowpressure tank, in which the air is rarefied to correspond to...
Page 23 - Thus in a few months the examination was put on a imiform basis in all Physical Examining Units. In order to save time, already existing institutions, such as large hospitals or State universities, with their equipments, were utilized as these examining centers. Volunteer staffs of civilian consultants were locally organized and the work of the Physical Training Units systematized to a point of highest efficiency, with the result that JUST MISSING A FLAGSTAFF. Prompt action, intelligently executed,...
Page 33 - ... in a contest in which his best is required to win. In the case of the flier we are concerned, when he goes up, not only with questions of life and death and ideals, but with the fact that he, more than the average athlete, depends for success upon clearness of mind, quickness of thought, keenness of judgment. All these are mental faculties, not muscular. . The nervous system is more highly differentiated than the muscular system, and by reason of that fact more easily upset by improper food....
Page 24 - ... above 8,000 feet. Or that 61 of the 100 are fit for any type of air work; that 25 may do bombing; that 14 should be limited to reconnaissance or night bombing. Such classification of pilots for specific duties constitutes a new factor of conservation and safety to our forces. The feature of knowing the limitations of a valuable man spell increased efficiency. Just as the pilot is provided with a certain type of plane adapted to the work in hand, so the plane must be provided with a pilot adapted...
Page 42 - ... out to give the flier more room in front, and this change has practically eliminated the head injuries. A safety belt was lashed to the machine by a simple rubber shock absorber, and since this has been done the number and extent of injuries to the upper abdomen and ribs have been reduced decidedly. The problem of protecting the flier against the extreme cold of high altitudes in winter was solved by designing electrically warmed clothing. The problem of enabling the flier to withstand the glare...
Page 26 - ... standardized and confirmed by the low-pressure tank, in which the air is rarefied to correspond to any given altitude. By a comparison of the percentage of oxygen to which the flier succumbs when on the low-oxygen test, it is possible to determine the altitude at which he would fail were he in the air. This determination is made on the ground, without danger either to the flier or to his machine. The effect of low oxygen upon the mental processes varies greatly in the individual. He usually becomes...
Page 23 - Service the problems were presented of overcoming all those conditions affecting the physical fitness of the man who, leaving his natural environment, the ground, straps wings to his body and soars to heights into which even the eagle dare not go. For work in this unnatural environment only the man who is in every way physically fit should be selected. When our Air Medical Service was established it was fortunate to have at hand a series of reports of the Air Medical Services of our Allies by medical...
Page 21 - ... sensitized piece of mechanism with troubles all his own. To keep his complex organism physically fit a special master mechanic had to be provided solely for him. The flight surgeon, therefore, has been given freedom of independent initiative in all questions of fitness of the fliers. Subject to the approval of the commanding officer, he is expected to institute such measures as periods of rest, recreations, and temporary excuse from duty as may seem advisable. He takes sick calls of aviators,...
Page 28 - ... the rebreather. Then it is possible to ground a man for a certain period to enable him to recover entirely, whereas if this condition were not detected, it might progress to a point where it would be impossible for the man to regain his former efficiency. When staleness becomes marked the flier is liable to faint in the air, thus losing his life and wrecking his machine. Periodical examinations are made to detect staleness. There are three and only three means by which the flier's usefulness...

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