Al-Ghazali's Philosophical Theology
The Muslim thinker al-Ghazali (d. 1111) was one of the most influential theologians and philosophers of Islam and has been considered an authority in both Western and Islamic philosophical traditions. Born in northeastern Iran, he held the most prestigious academic post in Islamic theology in Baghdad, only to renounce the position and teach at small schools in the provinces for no money. His contributions to Islamic scholarship range from responding to the challenges of Aristotelian philosophy to creating a new type of Islamic mysticism and integrating both these traditions-falsafa and Sufism-into the Sunni mainstream. This book offers a comprehensive study of al-Ghazali's life and his understanding of cosmology-how God creates things and events in the world, how human acts relate to God's power, and how the universe is structured. Frank Griffel presents a serious revision of traditional views on al-Ghazali, showing that his most important achievement was the creation of a new rationalist theology in which he transformed the Aristotelian views of thinkers such as Avicenna to accord with intellectual currents that were well-established within Muslim theological discourse. Using the most authoritative sources, including reports from al-Ghazali's students, his contemporaries, and his own letters, Griffel reconstructs every stage in a turbulent career. The al-Ghazali that emerges offers many surprises, particularly on his motives for leaving Baghdad and the nature of his "seclusion" afterwards. Griffel demonstrates that al-Ghazali intended to create a new cosmology that moved away from concerns held earlier by Muslim theologians and Arab philosophers. This new theology aimed to provide a framework for the pursuit of the natural sciences and a basis for Islamic science and philosophy to flourish beyond the 12th century. Al-Ghazali's Philosophical Theology is the most thorough examination to date of this important thinker.
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The falāsifas View of Creation by Means of Secondary
Causes and Effects in The Revival of the Religious Sciences
The Necessity of the Conditions in Gods Creation
Cosmology in Works Written after The Revival
The Philosophers God as the First
The Cosmology of the Fourth Group in the Veil
Developments That Led to
Secondary Causes in Asharite Theology
Restraining the Ordinary
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Abd al-Ghāfir Abū Bakr according afterlife al-Asharī al-Dīn al-Fārābī al-Ghazālī says al-Juwaynī al-Munqidh al-Shifā al-Subki al-tafriqa apostasy Arabic argument Aristotelian Asharite autobiography Averroes Avicenna Ayn al-Quḍāt Baghdad caliph causal causal connections celestial cosmology created Dār divine earlier Edited effect efficient cause eternal explains fāil Fakhr falāsifa falsafa fatwā foreknowledge Frank Ghazālī Ghazalian Gimaret God’s actions God’s creation God’s habit God’s knowledge Griffel ḥadīth human actions Ibid Ibn al-Arabī Ibn Sīnā Ibn Taymiyya Ibn Tūmart idem Iḥyā Incoherence instance interpretation Islam Ismāīlite judgment kalām Khorasan Kitāb madrasa manuscript Marmura meaning metaphysics modalities Muḥammad Muhammad ibn Muslim Mutazilites necessary Niche of Lights Nishapur Niẓām al-Mulk Niẓāmiyya madrasa occasionalist one’s passage philosophical position pre-eternity prophetical miracles Qur’an refers religious reports revelation Revival Sanjar scholars sciences secondary causes Seljuq seventeenth discussion soul Sufi sultan Tabaqāt Tahāfut taqlīd teachings theology theory things translation Ṭūs unbelief understanding University water clock