Alchemy and artificial intelligence
Early successes in programming digital computers to exhibit simple forms of intelligent behavior, coupled with the belief that intelligent activities differ only in their degree of complexity, have led to the conviction that the information processing underlying any cognitive performance can be formulated in a program and thus simulated on a digital computer. Attempts to simulate cognitive processes on computers have, however, run into greater difficulties than anticipated. An examination of these difficulties reveals that the attempt to analyze intelligent behavior in digital computer language systematically excludes three fundamental human forms of information processing (fringe consciousness, essence/accident discrimination, and ambiguity tolerance). Moreover, there are four distinct types of intelligent activity, only two of which do not presuppose these human forms of information processing and can therefore be programmed. Significant developments in artificial intelligence in the remaining two areas must await computers of an entirely different sort, of which the only existing prototype is the little-understood human brain. (Author).
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
ambiguity tolerance analogue areas of intelligent artificial intelligence associationism associationist assumption Bar-Hillel brain cessing checkers chess program claim cognitive simulation complex Computers and Thought considered context cues depends Descartes determinate device digital computer discrete operations early success essential evaluation evidence example explicit exponential growth fact Feigenbaum and Julian field of artificial formal forms of information Fringe Consciousness fringes of consciousness game playing H. A. Simon heuristics human information processing hypothesis ill-structured insight intelligent activity involved Julian Feldman eds language translation learning Logic Theorist machine trace McGraw-Hill Book Company meaning mechanical dictionary mechanical information processing natural language Newell and Simon Norbert Wiener Oettinger pattern recognition perceptive pons asinorum possible possibly relevant prediction principle problem solving progress protocol RAND Corporation recognize require Rook rule Selfridge and Neisser Shaw simple solution sort structure suggest theorem thinking tion unconscious counting uniquely human forms workers in artificial workers in cognitive