Algebra of Conscience

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 2001 - Business & Economics - 358 pages
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Conscience is an essential human attribute. Nevertheless, in the construction of formal models of the subject it is customarily left outside the framework of theoretical analysis. The Algebra of Conscience, whose first edition appeared in 1982, was the first specialized work modeling the phenomenon of conscience. The method used in this book made it possible to connect moral experience with decision-making procedures on the level of mathematical models. The application of such models allows us to propose the hypothesis of two fundamentally different ethical systems determining the normative patterns of human behavior in situations of conflict. Under the first ethical system the subject's self-esteem is raised if the subject seeks to resolve the conflict; in the second it is raised by seeking to dramatize the conflict.
The new edition of The Algebra of Conscience is significantly expanded. The second part of the book, devoted to moral choice, is completely new. Based on the theory presented in the first part, it constructs the model of a subject capable of making an intentional choice. A special variable corresponds to the subject's intention. This development allows us to include within the model freedom of will and freedom of choice, and also to generalize classical 2×2 game theory to the case where outcomes, in addition to having utility measures, are either `positive' or `negative.'
In its concluding chapters the book constructs a dynamic model of the intentional subject faced with a choice between two alternatives, neither of which is morally acceptable for the subject. It is shown that in this case the probabilities of choice of the alternatives may change chaotically. From this it follows that one cannot predict which alternative will be chosen or even the probabilities with which they will be chosen.
Audience: The book is addressed to a broad readership having elementary knowledge of mathematical logic and the theory of probability. It can be used in college courses studying the modelling of moral choice. The book's material can also be used in the design of artificial intelligence systems.
 

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Contents

MORAL COGNITION
36
ETHICAL SYSTEMS AND BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
43
BOOLEAN ALGEBRA EXPONENT LOGARITHM
46
INDIVIDUALS REFLEXION AND INTERACTION
50
AUTOMATA WITH SEMANTICS AND ETHICAL STATUS
55
A FORMAL REPRESENTATION OF DOUBTS AND FEELINGS
63
A FORMAL COMPARISON OF ETHICAL SYSTEMS GUILT CONDEMNATION DOUBT
68
A FORMAL COMPARISON OF ETHICAL SYSTEMS DOUBTS AND ETHICAL STATUS
74
CHAPTER VII A BOOLEANLINEAR MODEL OF THE SUBJECT
203
EXAMPLES OF MODELING THE PROCESS OF CHOICE
214
IMITATION OF THE OTHER
222
THE SUBJECT CONTROLLING HIS RELATIONSHIPS WITH ANOTHER SUBJECT
228
TWO ASPECTS OF CHOICE
232
GENERALIZATION OF CLASSICAL GAME THEORY OF 2x2 ZEROSUM GAME
235
RISK AND CAUTION
242
THE NONLINEAR MODEL OF THE SUBJECT
245

ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF ARTISTIC AND PROPAGANDISTIC LITERATURE
82
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF NORMATIVE INDIVIDUALS
88
THE PRINCIPLE OF MAXIMIZATION OF THE ETHICAL STATUS OF ONES IMAGE OF ONESELF
94
FEELINGS AND SACRIFICES
98
FORMAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MODULES OF INNER STRUCTURES AND INDIVIDUALS
109
INTERACTION ACTIVITY AND ITS MEASURE
112
ETHICAL TYPOLOGY IN THE NOVEL CRIME AND PUNISHMENT BY FEDOR DOSTOEVSKY
116
IDEOLOGY MORALITY AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
126
GENERALIZATION PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF ETHICALLY NONMEASURABLE SITUATIONS
135
THE PROBLEM OF SUBSTANTIATING INITIAL AXIOMS
143
EPILOGUE TO PART ONE
148
MORAL CHOICE
151
PROLOGUE TO PART TWO
153
INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO
155
THE THREEFACED JANUS AN INITIAL METAPHOR FOR THE MODEL OF THE SUBJECT
160
A BOOLEAN MODEL OF BIPOLAR CHOICE
165
METACHOICE
174
MODELING OF AWARENESS
184
THE PRISONERS DILEMMA
192
THE MORALITY OF RESULTS AND THE MORALITY OF MEANS
198
SUBJECT WITH A QUADRATIC MODEL OF THE SITUATION
249
STREAMS OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
252
STREAMS OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND ACTS OF AWARENESS
256
EPILOGUE TO PART TWO
261
APPENDICES
263
CONSTRUCTION OF JUDGMENTS ABOUT THE CORRECTNESS OF IMAGES AND JUDGMENTS
265
ETHICAL SYSTEMS AND MULTIVALUED LOGICS
269
SELFGENERATION OF ENVIRONMENTS
291
A METHOD OF CALCULATING MEAN ETHICAL STATUSES
298
TYPES OF ADEQUACY OF REFLEXION
307
SCHEMAS OF EMPIRICAL PROCEDURES
311
TABLES
316
PROBLEMS OF SUBSTANTIATING THE INITIAL AXIOMS IN AN ARBITRARY ENVIRONMENT
321
ANOTHER METHOD OF REPRESENTING INDIVIDUALS
327
REPRESENTATION OF COMPLETED GRAPHS WITH POLYNOMIALS
329
THE PRINCIPLE OF COMPLEMENTARITY AND THE PHENOMENON OF INTERFERENCE IN THE ALGEBRAIC MODEL OF ETHICAL COG...
339
REFERENCES
349
INDEX OF NAMES
353
SUBJECT INDEX
355
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