All Made of Tunes: Charles Ives and the Uses of Musical Borrowing

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Yale University Press, Jan 1, 1995 - Music - 554 pages
Charles Ives is famous for using borrowed material in his music. Almost two hundred individual works or movements, spanning his entire career and representing more than a third of his output, incorporate music by other composers or from his own previous work. In this book, the eminent Ives scholar J. Peter Burkholder identifies the different kinds of "quotations" in Ives's music, explores the complex musical, aesthetic, and psychological motivations behind the borrowings, and shows the purpose, techniques, and effects that characterize each one.

Burkholder catalogues fourteen distinct ways that Ives borrowed, ranging from direct quotation to paraphrase, variation, collage, modeling, and stylistic allusion. Arguing that these borrowing procedures were compositional strategies, he provides a new perspective on Ives's process of composition. In addition, by tracing the development of Ives's borrowing practices through his career, he contributes to an understanding of the composer's stylistic evolution. And by showing how much of Ives's music uses borrowing procedures that are common to many composers, he reveals that Ives is not as far removed from the classic-romantic tradition as has been thought. Finally, Burkholder's comprehensive treatment of Ives's borrowing techniques offers a new perspective on the entire field of musical borrowing.
 

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Contents

Emulating Models and Learning Musical Styles
12
The Art of Paraphrase
37
Modeling and Paraphrase in the First and Second Symphonies
88
Cumulative Settings
137
The Development and Significance of Cumulative Settings
216
Modeling and Stylistic Allusion to Evoke a Style or Genre
267
Patchwork and Extended Paraphrase
300
Programmatic Quotation
340
Quodlibet and Collage
369
The Significance of Ivess Uses of Existing Music
412
Notes
427
Bibliography
505
Index of Ivess Compositions
521
Index of Compositions by Others
529
General Index
539
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