Allergic Diseases and the Environment
Erika Isolauri, W. Allan Walker
Karger, 2004 - Medical - 324 pages
During the last two decades the increase in allergic diseases in children, such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, has been drastic. However, this is not true for the entire world: the incidence of allergies in children has risen only in developed countries. The observation of this socio-geographic discrepancy has led to careful study of the environmental differences that exist between the diverse settings in which children are born and has resulted in the so-called 'hygiene hypothesis': the 'sterility' of modern hospitals and birth places in the developed world might lead to a lack of microbial stimulation required for the development of a balanced mucosal immune response, including expansion of T-helper (Th) cell subsets that can mediate immune responses. Therefore, this workshop was held to consider in depth the environmental factors that influence the changing pattern of worldwide childhood allergy. This publication is a valuable source of knowledge and update for nutritionists, pediatricians, immunologists, microbiologists, as well as professionals concerned with preventive medicine.
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Changing Definitions of Allergy
The Changing Prevalence and Clinical Profile
Modulation of the Atopic
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activation adult airway allergen-specific allergens allergic disease Allergy Clin Immunol antibodies antigen associated asthma atopic dermatitis atopic disease atopic eczema atopy bacteria Bergmann bifidobacteria bowel breast milk breast-fed breast-feeding childhood Clin Exp Allergy cohort colonization cytokines dendritic cells diarrhea diet dietary disorders early effect endotoxin environmental eosinophils epithelial epithelium exposure extensively hydrolyzed flora food allergy formula function gastrointestinal tract genetic glutamine helminth house dust mite human hydrolyzed hygiene hypothesis hypersensitivity immune response immune system immunological important increased induce infants infections inflammation inflammatory innate immune intestinal Isolauri isonitrogenous Lactobacillus Lancet levels lymphocytes mechanisms metabolism mice microbial microbiota microflora milk allergy mothers mucosal neonatal nutrients nutrition oral tolerance pathogens patients Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr phenotype population prevalence prevention probiotics production protective protein randomized receptors reduced regulatory respiratory risk factors role specific studies supplementation symptoms T-cell TGF-p Th2 cells Th2 responses Walker wheezing