Allocation Models and their Use in Economic Planning
Three different lines of approach have contributed to the theory of optimal planning. One approach considers the problem from the view-point of a national government and its adviser, the econometrician planning speci alist. The government can, if this is thought to be desirable, stimulate investment in certain directions and discourage other economic activities. By various fiscal devices, it can influence both the total level and the distribution of investment funds over different sectors of production. Also, in many countries, a public agency plays some kind of coordinat ing role in the formulation of long-term plans for output by the enter prises sector; this may range from administrative direction in so-called centrally planned economies, to persuasion and advice in 'capitalist' economies. Accordingly, the public planner wishes to know what dis tribution of the nation's resources would be 'optimal'. This leads to the construction of various models which may be described under the general heading 'input-output type models'. This type of model has been largely developed by practitioners, among whom Sandee [B2] is probably the most outstanding and the earliest. A later, well-developed example of a model based on this approach is, for example, the Czech model by Cerny et al. [Bl]. A second approach considers the problem from the point of view of the private entrepreneur and his adviser, the manager and financial accountant.
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WHAT IS EFFICIENCY?
THE GENERALIZED INPUTOUTPUT MODEL
INTERTEMPORAL ALLOCATION IN
THE BALANCED GROWTH FRONTIER
THE DYNAMIZED LEONTIEF MODEL
FOREIGN TRADE IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
THE COSTING PROBLEM
DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW IN THE STANDARD
INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE
SOME SPECIAL EVALUATION PROBLEMS
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accepted projects adjustment aggregation agriculture allocation model alternative processes arise Arrow’s assume balanced growth capacity cgst coefﬁcients column competing import consumption corresponding cost deﬁned discount Discounted Cash Flow domestic production dual requirements dual restrictions dual solution dynamic economic efﬁciency frontier efﬁciency prices efﬁciency-prices eﬂiciency example exogenous export limit ﬁgures ﬁnal demand ﬁnal output vector ﬁnd ﬁnished metal ﬁrst ﬁxed ﬂat foreign exchange foreign trade full employment i-type capital income industry inefﬁcient input input-output model investment labour Lagrange multipliers Lagrangean Leontief model limiting prices linear linear programming matrix maximize non-negative non-produced non-zero numeraire obtain operated processes particular period preference function price structure price vector primal primal solution production factors production processes productive activities programming problem project value quadratic programming quasi-rent rate of interest reﬁnery relative result returns to scale satisﬁes Section shadow prices speciﬁc steel supply terminal capital stocks theorem tion units zero proﬁt requirement
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