Alternative Sewer Systems FD-12, 2e

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McGraw Hill Professional, May 15, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 272 pages
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  • Market: Engineering consultants; municipal waste managers; purchasing department managers; government regulators; members of the WEF, USEPA, U.S. Department of Agriculture, American Water Works Association, and International Water Association
  • Includes both SI units and US customary units

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Chapter 4 Effluent Sewers

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Page v - Wastes Associations) was created by the Federation Board of Control on October 11, 1941 . The primary function of the Committee is to originate and produce, through appropriate subcommittees, special publications dealing with technical aspects of the broad interests of the Federation. These...
Page 75 - Most displacers are built to provide a differential between pump on and pump off. Some are pilot devices, while others are motor-rated. Bubbler type liquid level sensors have also been used. These consist of a small compressor which purges air down a sensing tube in the wet well. The pressure in the sensing tube increases as the liquid level in the wet well rises. Pressure switches in the control panel sense the pressure to turn the pump on or off, or to activate alarms. Bubblers are more common...
Page 168 - ... space. 3.6.5 Maintenance Normal Maintenance A properly designed vacuum station will be equipped with a fault monitoring system, such as a telephone dialer. This system monitors the operation of both the vacuum station and the collection system, and automatically notifies the operator of tow vacuum, high levels of wastewater in the collection tank, and power outages. Normal operation includes visiting each vacuum station daily. Some daily maintenance procedures include the recording of...
Page 50 - Pipelines Mainlines a. Geometry The geometry of a pressure sewer system is similar to that of a water distribution system, but normally in dendriform pattern, as opposed to a network in which the pipelines are looped. The purpose of the branched layout is to have a predictable minimum self-cleaning velocity in the mains, but a disadvantage is that redundancy is not provided as it is in a looped system. With a network, a section of the piping system can be shut down for repairs without interrupting...
Page 50 - Routing In most cases, vacuum sewer mains are located outside of and adjacent to the edge of pavement and approximately parallel to the road or street, which reduces the expenses of pavement repair and traffic control. In areas subject to unusual erosion, the preferred location is often within the paved area. This location is also favored by some municipalities as being an area where subsequent excavation is less likely and more controlled, and therefore a location...
Page 85 - ... practices, particularly as applied to pumping, is required. Personnel should be advised on practices regarding exposure to septic sewer gases. Public relations are important. Service personnel should be able to represent the sewer district diplomatically. Training in this subject area may be advised. 2.6.4 Spare Parts Inventory The number of spare parts required is related to the particular system being operated and maintained. In general, sufficient pipeline fittings and special tools should...
Page 83 - ... pressure sewers discharge. The proper practices of pressure sewer maintenance are usually such that the gases are not hazardous due to dilution with ambient air, but service personnel need to be aware of the potential hazards of these gases. For example, hydrogen sulfide is known to deaden a persons ability to smell it after brief exposure. This may cause the person to wrongly think the gas has drifted away. Many deaths have been attributed to exposure to septic sewer gases. Service personnel...
Page 94 - ... discouraged. This requirement differs little from user ordinance requirements for conventional sewers. Proper use of the system results in lower user charges and improved reliability. 2.8.2 Sewer Utility Responsibilities The utility should take seriously the need for early and accurate public address. On some larger community projects, opinion leaders of the community representing diverse geographical areas and varied cultural backgrounds have been sought. These people are invited to be special...
Page 44 - However, that general rule may allow for more infiltration than may occur when pressure sewers are used, and it allows for some amount of commercial and industrial use that may not be present in pressure sewer design. Experience with pressure sewerage has shown a lower allowance to be more in order. During the early stages of pressure sewer development extensive investigations were made into domestic water consumption during periods of low outside water use, with the correlation that water consumption...
Page 60 - ... pipe of sufficient length, typically 1 .8 m (6 ft), from the valve pit is recommended. The orientation of the valve pit as it relates to the house and the wye connection is dependent on the number of connections to the pit (Figure 3-11). If the home piping network does not have a cleanout within it, one should be placed outside and close to the home.

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The Water Environment Federation is a not-forprofit technical and educational organization whose members work towards the WEF vision of preservation and enhancement of global water environment.

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