Aluminium: Its History, Occurrence, Properties, Metallurgy and Applications, Including Its Alloys
Presents the history of aluminum and the industry, its occurrence in nature, its physical and chemical properties, its metallurgy and applications, and alloys.
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Aluminium; Its History, Occurrence, Properties, Metallurgy and Applications ...
Joseph William Richards
No preview available - 2013
According acid action added alloy alumina aluminium amount appears becomes bottom bronze calcining carbon cast cent charcoal charge chemical chloride clay closed color combines complete containing cooling copper cost covered Cowles crucible cryolite decomposed deposit Deville dissolved double easily electricity employed experiments fluoride flux formed furnace fused give given globules hard heat hydrogen improved industry iron kilos latter layer lead less manufacture mass material means melted metal method minium mixed mixture NaCl necessary observed obtained operation oxide passed patent placed possible potassium pounds powder precipitate preparation present produced properties proportions pure quantity reaction reduced remains removed resistance retort salt separated silicon silver soda sodium solder solution strong sulphide sulphur surface taken takes temperature tion treated tube vapor washed whole zinc
Page 195 - If alumina in the form of granulated corundum is mingled with the carbon in the electric path, aluminium is rapidly liberated, being in part carried off with the escaping gas, and in part condensed in the upper layer of charcoal. In this way are obtained considerable masses of nearly pure aluminium, and others of a crystalline compound of the metal with carbon.
Page 273 - ... known. Its high cost has alone prevented its extensive use in the arts. The alloys are very uniform in character. Every 1 per cent of aluminium added to copper causes a considerable increase in ductility, increases its fusibility, and enables it to cast well ; 2 per cent gives a mixture used for castings which are to be worked with a chisel. It is softened by sudden cooling from a red heat. Its coefficient of expansion is small at ordinary temperatures. It has great elasticity when made into...
Page 267 - Two points are to be attended to in making aluminium bronze. First: A pure copper must be used. The best is that electrically deposited, but it generally costs too much. The next best is the Lake Superior brand ; the usual commercial copper gives all sorts of poor results, owing to the antimony, arsenic, tin , zinc, or iron contaminating it. The bronze loses by being alloyed with zinc or tin. Secondly, the alloy must be remelted two or three times to remove its brittleness.
Page 191 - ... a variable resistance, and, at the same time, as the most available substance for the reduction of oxides. When this material, mixed with the oxide to be reduced, was made a part of the electric circuit in a fireclay retort and submitted to the action of a current from a powerful dynamo...
Page 268 - It gives good castings of all sizes and runs in sand-moulds very uniformly. Thin castings come out very sharp, but if a casting is thin and suddenly thickens, small off-shoots must be made at the thick place, into which the metal can run and then soak back into the casting as it cools and shrinks, thus avoiding cavities by shrinkage at the thick part. Its specific gravity is 7.68, about that of soft iron.
Page 195 - In this way are obtained considerable masses of nearly pure aluminium, and others of a crystalline compound of the metal with carbon. When, however, a portion of granulated copper is placed with the corundum, an alloy of the two metals is obtained, which is probably formed in the overlying stratum, but, at the close of the operation, is found in fused masses below.
Page 266 - It behaves as a true alloy, and in consequence will not liquate into different combinations. This is proven by the fact that. when in making the alloy , the pure copper is in the crucible, and a bar of aluminium is added, the combination takes place with such disengagement of heat, that if the crucible is not of good quality it will be fused, for the whole attains a white heat. The color of the bronze is exactly that of 'green gold...
Page 127 - ... as to protect it from the air. The chief inducement for using cryolite as a source of aluminium, is that it is a natural product obtained with tolerable facility, and enables the manufacturer to dispense with the troublesome and costly preparation of the chloride of aluminium and sodium.
Page 192 - ... dynamo machine, not only was the reduction accomplished but the temperature increased to such an extent that the whole interior of the retort fused completely. In other experiments lumps of lime, sand and corundum were fused, with indications of a reduction of the corresponding metal. On cooling, the lime formed large, well-defined crystals, the corundum beautiful red, green and blue hexagonal crystals.
Page 35 - Gottiugen, was the first to make these light and unalterable beams of an alloy of 96 aluminium and 4 silver. He has had but few imitators. There are several reasons why the metal is shown so little favor by mathematical instrument makers and others. First of all, there is the price; then the methods of working it are not everywhere known ; and further, no one knows how to cast it. Molten aluminium attacks the common earthen crucible, reduces silicon from it, and becomes gray and brittle. This inconvenience...