Aluminum Recycling and Processing for Energy Conservation and Sustainability

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ASM International, 2007 - TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING - 267 pages
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Energy and sustainability are critical factors for economic development, and this comprehensive reference provides a detailed overview and fundamental analysis of sustainability issues associated with the aluminum industry. This publication brings together articles on the concepts and application of life-cycle assessments that benchmark aluminum-industry efforts towards sustainable development. Chapters provide energy-use data for primary and secondary aluminum production and processing along with future energy saving opportunities in aluminum processing. Life-cycle assessments provide basic, factual, information on the modeling of material flow in the industry, its products, and most importantly energy savings involved with recycling. Coverage includes various scrap sorting technologies and the positive impact of lightweight aluminum in transportation and infrastructure.
 

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Contents

Developing Scrap Streams
119
Can Recycling Technology
122
Automobile Scrap Recycling Technology
125
Building and Construction Recycling
128
Impurity Control
129
Molten Metal Handling and Safety
130
Identification and Sorting of Wrought Aluminum Alloys
135
Sources of Aluminum Raw Material for Alloy Sorting
136

The US Government RoleTechnical
24
The Role of Professional Societies
28
Summary and Recommendations
29
LifeCycle Inventory Analysis of the North American Aluminum Industry
33
LifeCycle Inventory Methodology
35
Inventory Analysis
40
Primary Aluminum Unit Processes
46
Secondary Aluminum Processing
51
Manufacturing Unit Processes
53
Results by Product System
56
Interpretation of LCI Results
60
LifeCycle Assessment of Aluminum Inventory Data for the Worldwide Primary Aluminum Industry
67
Data Quality
68
Unit Processes and Results by Process
73
Aluminum LifeCycle Assessment with Regard to Recycling Issues
83
Sustainable Development for the Aluminum Industry
90
Recycling
92
Perfluorocarbon Emissions
94
Fluoride Emissions
95
Energy Efficiency
97
Aluminum in Transportation
99
Natural Resources
101
Material Flow Modeling of Aluminum for Sustainability
103
Key Results
105
Recycling of Aluminum
109
Industry and Recyling Trends
110
Recyclability of Aluminum
114
The Recycling Loop
115
Technological Aspects of Aluminum Recycling
116
Process Developments for Remelting
118
Pilot Processes for Improved Wrought Recovery
139
Emerging Trends in Aluminum Recycling
147
Objectives and Challenges
148
Recycling Aluminum Aerospace Alloys
150
Alloys Designed for Recycling
152
Developing RecyclingFriendly Compositions
153
Conclusions and Looking Ahead
154
US Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production Historical Perspective Theoretical Limits and New Opportunities
157
Summary
158
Aluminum Production and Energy Consumption
160
Methodology Metrics and Benchmarks
164
Aluminum Production
168
Primary Aluminum Raw Materials
171
Primary Aluminum Production
178
Advanced HallHeroult Cells
191
Alternative Primary Aluminum Processes
197
Secondary Aluminum Recycling
204
Aluminum Processing
208
Energy Intensity of Materials Produced in the United States
222
Energy Values for Energy Sources and Materials
224
Hydroelectric Distribution and Electrical Energy Values
227
Emission Data and Calculations
231
US Energy Use by Aluminum Processing Area
237
Theoretical Energy Data and Calculations
245
Aluminum Heat Capacity and Heat of Fusion Data
250
Impact of Using Different Technologies on Energy Requirements for Producing Aluminum
253
Glossary
257
Index
261
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