Eugene F. Bernstein
Springer New York, Jun 21, 1988 - Medical - 310 pages
Amaurosis fugax, or "fleeting blindness," has been known as a clinical entity for hundreds of years (1). Since 1859, we also have understood that the phenomenon frequently is related to atheroembolic disease and that it is considered a classic manifestation of ocular transient ischemic attacks and a potential precursor to stroke. However, many questions about this syndrome have remained unanswered until quite recently, when a great deal of new information and thought has been directed to the subject. Transient monocular blindness (TMB) is only one manifestation of a complicated syndrome of ocular, systemic, and cerebral diseases that may include some degree of monocular blindness. The duration of blindness varies from very brief (seconds) to complete and permanent. The per manent type is referred to as ocular infarction or ocular stroke. Retinal infarction is the most severe degree of monocular blindness and usually is due to embolic occlusion of the central retinal artery or one of its branches. Varying types of arterial emboli have been described, including thrombus, cholesterol, platelets, and fibrin.
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Neurologic Mechanisms of Visual Loss
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abnormalities AION amaurosis fugax angiogram angiography Arch Ophthalmol artery occlusive disease aspirin associated asymptomatic atherosclerotic blood flow branches cardiac carotid artery disease carotid artery occlusive carotid bifurcation carotid disease carotid endarterectomy cause central retinal artery central retinal vein cerebral infarction cerebral ischemia choroidal circulation clinical contralateral CRA occlusion CRVO CT scans diabetic diagnosis Doppler duplex edema emboli episodes evaluation extracranial giant-cell arteritis glaucoma Hayreh SS headache hemispheric TIAs hemorrhages hypertension internal carotid artery internal carotid stenosis intracranial intraocular ipsilateral ischemic oculopathy ischemic optic neuropathy Kearns lesions medial migraine myocardial infarction neovascularization Neurol Neurology noninvasive normal occur ophthalmic artery optic disk optic nerve head patients with amaurosis PCAs placebo plaque platelet prevalence of atrophy reported retinal ischemia retinal stroke retinal vascular risk Ross Russell Ross Russell RW studies surgery symptoms Table therapy transient ischemic attacks trial ulceration vascular disease venous stasis retinopathy vessels visual loss watershed zone