American Indian English
American Indian English documents and examines the diversity of English in American Indian speech communities. It presents a convincing case for the fundamental influence of ancestral American Indian languages and cultures on spoken and written expression in different Indian English codes. A distillation of over twenty years' research, this pioneering work explores the linguistic and sociolinguistic characteristics of English language use among members of Navajo, Hopi, Mojave, Ute, Tsimshian, Kotzebue, Ponca, Pima, Lakota, Cheyenne, Laguna, Santa Ana, Isleta, Chilcotin, Seminole, Cherokee, and other American Indian tribes. American Indian English fills numerous gaps in existing studies of language histories, Indian student school experience, Indian-white contact, and "acculturation.".
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Speakers and Speech Communities
Sound Patterns Sentence Forms and Meanings
Indian English and Ancestral Language Tradition
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adults Alaska Native analysis ancestral language ancestral language tradition areas assigned boarding school Brackettville chapter Cheyenne Cheyenne English Chilcotin classroom cloze cognate object contrasts deletion devoicing discussion English discourse English fluency English language English skills example federal final-position consonants frequently grade grammar and discourse Indian and Alaska Indian country Indian English codes Indian English grammar Indian English varieties Indian students inflected influence Interviewer Isleta pueblo Isletan English Isletan Tiwa Laguna Lakota language skills linguistic Lumbee markers Mohave English Navajo negative non-Indian students nonstandard English Northern Ute noun occur on-reservation parents past tense patterns Penfield-Jasper Pima Ponca proficiency pronoun pueblo questions reading reference reservation responses rules San Juan English segments Seminole sequence settings Smurph social speak speech communities spelling standard English structure student English suffix syntactic syntax teachers tense/aspect tribal tribes Tsimshian uninflected Ute English Ute language Ute students verb verb constructions vowel words