American Journal of Physiology

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American Physiological Society, 1900 - Cell physiology
Vols. for 1898-1941, 1948-56 include the Society's proceedings (primarily abstracts of papers presented at the 10th-53rd annual meetings, and the 1948-56 fall meetings).
 

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Page 395 - ... development of nonparthenogenetic eggs, but it is also the bearer of the hereditary qualities of the male. From our experiments it becomes evident that these two functions of the spermatozoon are not necessarily bound together, for nobody would assume for an instant that the hereditary qualities that are carried by the spermatozoon could be imparted to the egg by a change in the inorganic constituents of the sea-water. We have learned to attribute the different activities of a cell to different...
Page 324 - Only so long as these proportions arc preserved does the tissue possess such physical properties and such labile equilibrium as to be capable of rhythmical processes or contractions. If the tissue has permanently or temporarily more Ca- and fewer Na-ions than are required for the above mentioned physical properties and condition of equilibrium, an increase of Na-ions in the tissue will cause rhythmical contraction. In such a case the tissue will begin to contract rhythmically or beat at an increased...
Page 394 - ... There is certainly no reason left for defining the process of fertilization as a morphological process. The morphology of the spermatozoon itself becomes of secondary importance as far as the process of fertilization is concerned. The spermatozoon not only starts the development of nonparthenogenetic eggs, but it is also the bearer of the hereditary qualities of the male. From our experiments it becomes evident that these two functions of the spermatozoon are not necessarily bound together...
Page 324 - ... that these latter are responsible for the rhythmical contractions of the center which occur in pure NaCl or NaBr solutions. But the muscles of the skeleton (even if curarized) show rhythmical contractions in the same pure NaCl or NaBr solutions, provided the latter do not contain any K or Ca ions. 2. It would be unwarranted to say that Ca or any other ions are the cause of, or the stimulus for, the rhythmical contractions in Gonionemus, or the heart, or any other organ. It would be much nearer...
Page 324 - ... upon celldivision is altogether different from their effect upon the rhythmical contractions. This is not only true for the cells of Fundulus, but also for the egg-cells of the sea-urchin. I intend to discuss the effect of ions upon the cell-division in the eggs of sea-urchins in the next paper. III. SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 1. The results of this paper bear upon several other problems which we have thus far had no chance to discuss sufficiently. There has been a controversy as to whether the...
Page 376 - SEA-UBCHIN contain spermatozoa. It is imperative to guard against both possibilities. The sea-urchins have practically died out in the immediate neighborhood of the Woods Hole laboratory, and we have to send out the steam launch to collect them. For this reason even at the height of the spawning reason there is little danger of the sea-water containing spermatozoa in such quantities as to interfere with experiments on unfertilized eggs. Moreover the danger that the spermatozoa contained in the sea-water...
Page 181 - Studies on Reactions to Stimuli in Unicellular Organisms. V. On the Movements and Motor Reflexes of the Flagellata and Ciliata.
Page 360 - ... develop. If the initial loss of water on the part of the egg were all that is required for the production of artificial parthenogenesis, it would be possible to find a solution which would not only take away water from the egg, but which would also allow development to go on. I remembered from my earlier experiments on the effects of an increase in the concentration of sea-water upon development 1 that so slight an increase in the concentration of sea-water as is sufficient to induce parthenogenesis...
Page 207 - ... reason for holding the reactions of these unicellular organisms to be of an intrinsically different nature from those of higher forms. 7. The behavior of these organisms shows them to occupy an extremely low place in the psychological scale, most of their activities being due to a single reflex. 8. There is evidently no immediate analogy between the reaction movements of these unicellular organisms and the growth movements of higher forms (" tropisms"), so that the phenomena shown by the former...

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