Commentators call the United States an empire: occasionally a benign empire, sometimes an empire in denial, often a destructive empire. In American Umpire Elizabeth Cobbs Hoffman asserts instead that America has performed the role of umpire since 1776, compelling adherence to rules that gradually earned broad approval, and violating them as well.
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1 To Compel Acquiescence Or How Federalism Replaced Empire with Umpire 16481789
2 Umpire Attacked Or How the French Revolution Created the American Party System 17891800
3 Another Umpire than Arms Or How Economic Sanctions Became a Tool of Foreign Relations 18001815
4 A Rowboat in the Wake of a Battleship Or How America Flagged the Continent and Federal Power Triumphed 18151865
5 Territorial Expansion versus Saltwater Imperialism Or How America Entered the Fray for Colonies 18651920
6 The Open Door and the First International Rules Or How the United States Chose Another Way 19001920
7 War against War Or How the Democracies Stumbled and the World Caught Fire 19201939
8 Up to the Neck and in to the Death Or How America Became an Ally 19391945
9 The Buck Stops Here Or How the United States Assumed the Burden of Preemptive Intervention 19451947
10 A Coercive Logic Or How America Spread Freedom and Wealth and Compromised Its Ideals 19471991
Good Calls Bad Calls and Rules in Flux Or Who Wants to Be Ump? 1991Present
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