American Women Scientists: 23 Inspiring Biographies, 1900-2000
For most of the 20th century, American women had little encouragement to become scientists. In 1906, there were only 75 female scientists employed by academic institutions in the entire country. Despite considerable barriers, determined women have, however, decidedly distinguished themselves. Three examples: Astronomer Annie Jump Cannon discovered five novas and over 300 other stars. Mathematician and computer scientist Grace Hopper helped invent the COBOL language. Anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar devised the now universally used Apgar score to make a rapid evaluation of a newborn's condition just after delivery. Of the 23 American women scientists covered, six were awarded Nobel prizes. Each biography is accompanied by a photograph. A bibliography and an index complete the work.
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Annie Jump Cannon
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Academy Alice Alice Hamilton American Annie Annie Jump Cannon Apgar Arthur Pardee awarded babies Baker Barbara Barbara McClintock Bascom became began biology born Bryn Mawr cancer Cannon career Carson cells chemistry Chicago Chien-Shiung Chien-Shiung Wu child chromosomes clinic College Cornelia Clapp Courtesy daughter death died disease doctors Elion father Florence Florence Bascom genes genetics Germany Gertrude Elion Gerty Cori Goeppert graduate Hamilton Harvard Helen Taussig high school honors Hopper Hospital Hyman Institute interest involved Johns Hopkins Josephine Karen Horney known laboratory later Levi-Montalcini Libbie Hyman lived Maria Mary mathematics Mayer McClintock medical school medicine mother Mount Holyoke National Nettie Stevens Nobel Prize nuclear nutrition Ph.D physician physicist physics professor psychoanalysis published Rachel received retirement Rita Rosalyn Rosalyn Yalow Sabin Sager scientific scientists spent summer taught Taussig teacher teaching tion University Virginia Apgar Wellcome woman women wrote Yalow zoology