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acetic acid acid alcohol ammonia apparatus barrel boiling bottom bromide brush calcium chloride cannon pinion centre charcoal chloride citric acid clean cod liver oil cold collodion colour condenser cooling copper cover cylinder diameter dissolved distilled edge emulsion evaporation film filter filtered water flue gelatine glass glue gum arabic heat hole iron leather liquid liquor lower material matter metal method mixed mixture mould naphtha negative nitrate ordinary packed pallet paper passing percolator piece pinion pint pipe pivot placed plate potassium bromide powder produce pump quantity refrigerator removed round rubbed rubber salt screw sheet shellac shown in Fig side silver silver bromide silver nitrate soda solution steam sufficient sulphuric sulphuric acid surface temperature thick tion trough tube valve vapour varnish vessel washed weight wheel wood
Page 167 - The cylinder is full of scroll-shaped plates of iron, over both sides of which the thickened syrup flows as the cylinder revolves, and thus exposes a very large surface to the action of hot air, which is drawn through it by means of a fan G. Motion is given to the whole apparatus by means of a small engine H.
Page 273 - straw,' previous to plaiting, has to go through several processes. The leaves are gathered before they unfold, all their ribs and coarser veins removed, and the rest, without being separated from the base of the leaf, is reduced to shreds. After having been put in the sun for a day, and tied into a knot, the straw is immersed in boiling water until it becomes white.
Page 278 - ... plantations in light soils continue productive for 15 or 20 years, and much longer in rich alluvial soils. Osiers succeed best in rich soils, but not in clays. No cultivation is required after planting ; but the shoots are cut once a year, at any time between the fall of the leaf and the rising of the sap in spring. After cutting, they...
Page 43 - This may occupy two to five hours. 2. Alcohol is injected so as to abstract as much water as possible. This occupies about a quarter of an hour. 3. Ether is then injected to abstract the fatty matters.
Page 147 - This proportion is 3 parts of water to 2 of gum, both by weight. 2. That the relation of oil to gum (and water) shall be definite within certain limits ; that is to say, the mucilage formed in the above proportions is capable of perfectly emulsifying a minimum and a maximum proportion of oil. The minimum proportion is 2 parts of oil to 1 of gum ; the maximum proportion is 4 of oil to 1 of gum.
Page 163 - By the oldest method, the liquor was ladled throughout the series. More recently an improvement was introduced, consisting of a copper dipper, fitting inside the striking-teach, and having at the bottom a large valve, opening upwards and worked by a lever. The dipper is attached to a crane, which commands the striking-teach and the gutter leading to the coolers. This greatly economises time. The furnace for heating the series is set under the striking-teach ; the heat passes by flues to the chimney...
Page 273 - According to their quality, more or less time is occupied in their completion : the coarser ones may be finished in two or three days, the finest take as many months. The best times for plaiting are the morning hours and the rainy season, when the air is moist: in the middle of the day and in dry clear weather, the straw is apt to break, which, when the hat is finished, is betrayed by knots, and much diminishes the value.
Page 147 - Scrape down the portions adhering to the sides of the mortar and to the pestle, and continue the trituration for a short time, after which add such other ingredients as may be desirable, or transfer the concentrated emulsion to a wide-mouthed bottle for future use. This concentrated emulsion will keep for a reasonable time in cold weather, and if...
Page 93 - It is nothing less than a modern " elevator " worked by animal power instead of steam. Fiu. 40. Another form of elevator or chain pump is illustrated in Fig. 40, lifting water by continuous circular motion. Wooden or metallic discs, carried by an endless chain, are adapted to a water-tight cylinder, and form with it a succession of buckets filled with water. Power is applied at the upper wheel. The chain pump known as the Chinese or Californian pump, represented in Fig.
Page 21 - ... cloth or canvas with a liquid paste, made with drying oil in the following manner : Take Spanish white or pipeclay which has been completely cleaned by washing and sifting it from all impurities, and mix it up with boiled oil, to which a drying quality has been given by adding a dose of litharge, J the weight of the oil. This mixture, being brought to the consistence of thin paste, is spread over the cloth or canvas by means of an iron spatula, equal in length to the breadth of the cloth. When...