An Atlas of rectal endosonography
This book provides the first comprehensive guide to normaland abnormal findings on rectal sonograms. For over acentury surgeons have relied on clinical judgement and adigital rectal examination for assessing patients withrectal cancer and other anorectal disorders. Now, though,endosonography is recognised as the most accurate method forthepre-operative assessment of rectal cancers and maybecome the best techniquefor routine post-operativefollow-up in the detection of local recurrence. The text isbrief and summarises the important developments in techniqueand interpretation. There is a section on practical aspectsofendosonography, together with a large number of sonogramsillustrating the normal anatomical findings.
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Radiological Staging and History
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12 MHz transducer abscess accurate adenoma anal canal anastomosis anatomical layer Artefact Beynon biopsy bladder Blood vessels bowel Clinical stage digital rectal examination echogenic endoprobe Endorectal Sonography excision external anal sphincter focal range hypoechoic appearance hypoechoic area hypoechoic layer Hypoechoic lymph node Hypoechoic node imaged inner hypoechoic internal anal sphincter interpretation layers arrow lesion levator lymph node arrow lymph node involvement lymph node metastasis mesorectal fat mesorectum metastasis mucosa and muscularis mucosa and submucosa muscle muscularis mucosae muscularis propria nodal normal rectal wall normal sonogram Olympus outer interface patients with rectal pelvic floor pelvis perforation perirectal fat pouch of Douglas pre-operative probe prostate radiotherapy rectal cancer rectal endosonography rectal neoplasms rectoscope rectum resection specimen scanner Schematic illustration seen anteriorly sonogram sonographic sonographic appearance stage uT3 submucosa surrounding thickened tissue Tumour invades tumour penetrates Tumour Stage uT2 ultrasound usually uT3 tumour vagina villous water balloon water-filled balloon white circle