An Econometric Model of the Urban Opportunity Structure: Cumulative Causation Among City Markets, Social Problems, and Underserved Areas
Using an extensive database for the nation's 100 largest cities, this report examines the relationships among the housing, mortgage, and labor markets; the local public sector; household location patterns; and crime, dropping out of school, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. In addition to its comprehensiveness, this is also the first work to examine how underserved areas, as defined by HUD, interact with the various components of the opportunity structure. Includes 3 appendices: a glossary of variables; estimation of housing price indexes; and reduced form estimates (standardized coefficients).
aged 15 aggregate ANNEX APPW behaviors BLDGP capita census tracts central city population central city residents city population aged city's COOLCOSTM correlated CRIMEPC cumulative causation demand for mortgages demand for owner-occupied dependent variable DPOP DROPOUT dropout rates econometric model effects employment rates EMPPC endogenous variables EPIM equations exogenous feedback female headship rates FEMHEAD Galster HEATCOSTM homeownership housing and mortgage housing market Housing Price Indexes immigrants impact income INCPC job/population ratios jobs located JOBSPC labor market least squares linkages LOANS measure mortgage application mortgage market mortgage supply multicollinearity MUNICM neighborhood NOENGL OWND owner-occupied housing path coefficient percent POOR POPDENS population density potential poverty POWN PRENT property tax proxy PTAXRATE PUB$PC public expenditures public sector regression rental RENTD SEGPOORM SEGRACEM social problems specified standard deviation Standardized Coefficients statistically significant supply of mortgage two-stage least squares underserved areas units urban opportunity structure violent crime WAGE
Page 82 - CA Sacramento, CA San Diego, CA San Francisco, CA San Jose, CA Santa Ana, CA Stockton, CA Colorado Springs, CO Denver, CO Washington, DC Fort Lauderdale, FL Jacksonville, FL Miami, FL St.
Page 80 - ... Francisco, CA San Jose, CA Denver, CO Jacksonville, FL Miami, FL Atlanta, GA Honolulu, HI Chicago, IL Indianapolis, IN New Orleans, LA Baltimore, MD Boston, MA Detroit, MI Minneapolis, MN Kansas City, MO St. Louis, MO Omaha, NB Newark, NJ Buffalo, NY New York, NY Cincinnati, OH Cleveland, OH Columbus, OH Toledo, OH Oklahoma City, OK Tulsa, OK Portland, OR Philadelphia, PA Pittsburgh, PA Memphis, TN Nashville-Davidson, TN Dallas, TX El Paso, TX Fort Worth, TX Houston, TX San Antonio, TX Norfolk,...
Page ix - English well find housing demands skewed from owner to rental occupancy, greater demands for mortgage finance by those who do own, and a greater chance that their mortgage applications will be denied.
Page 40 - Variable — 3-item scale of pessimism regarding neighborhood changes.). ••bc - coefficient statistically significant at 1%, 5%, 10% levels, respectively (one-tailed test). * = two-tailed test if no predicted sign or opposite predicted sign.
Page vii - ... residents and incomes not above 120 percent of the MSA median and/or (2) median incomes of less than 90 percent of the MSA median.
Page 1 - What is the nature of the relationship between the aggregate supply of mortgage loans in the central city and the percentage of the population in underserved areas in that city?
Page vi - The United States is in the midst of the largest wave of immigration in its history.