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American amount average becomes boss capital capitalist cents CHAPTER character coal commodity compelled competition condition cost creates day's defeat demand depend determined difference direction economic effect employ employer enables equivalent establish exchange value existence Explain exploitation factories fight force gold greater hand high prices high wages higher human illustration improvement increase individual industry interest John labor power laws less living standard lower machinery machines maintain manufacturing Marx means measure ment necessary nominal objective offer operation organization paid period piece-work prevailing prevent processes production profit purchase QUESTIONS raise realized receives regard relation relationship relative wage result rise sell sellers Smith social socially necessary strive struggle supply surplus value things tion unions United volume wage worker
Сторінка 59 - These conditions can be changed and the interest of the working class upheld only by an organization formed in such a way that all its members in any one industry, or in all industries if necessary, cease work whenever a strike or lockout is on in any department thereof, thus making an injury to one an injury to all. Instead of the conservative motto, "A fair day's wage for a fair day's work," we must inscribe on our baner the revolutionary watchword, "Abolition of the wage system.
Сторінка 59 - It is the historic mission of the working class to do away with capitalism. The army of production must be organized, not only for the everyday struggle with capitalists, but also to carry on production when capitalism shall have been overthrown.
Сторінка 58 - The trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set of workers in the same industry, thereby helping to defeat one another in wage wars.
Сторінка 12 - In saying that the value of a commodity is determined by the quantity of labour worked up or crystallised in it, we mean the quantity of labour necessary for its production in a given state of society, under certain social average conditions of production, with a given social average intensity, and average skill of the labour employed.
Сторінка 12 - Some people might think that if the value of a commodity is determined by the quantity of labour spent on it, the more idle and unskilful the labourer, the more valuable would his commodity be, because more time would be required in its production.
Сторінка 58 - We find that the centering of the management of industries into fewer and fewer hands makes the trade unions unable to cope with the ever growing power of the employing class. The trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set of workers in the same industry, thereby helping to defeat one another in wage wars.
Сторінка 17 - The capitalist would consequently realise the profit of three shillings, not by selling his commodity at a price over and above its value, but by selling it at its real value. The value of a commodity is determined by the total quantity of labour contained in it. But part of that quantity of labour is...
Сторінка 58 - The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among millions of working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things of life. " Between these two classes a struggle must go on until all the toilers come together on the political, as well as on the industrial field, and take and hold that which they produce by their labor through an economic organization of the working class, without affiliation...
Сторінка 14 - Like that of every other commodity, its value is determined by the quantity of labour necessary to produce it. The labouring power of a man exists only in his living individuality. A certain mass of necessaries must be consumed by a man to grow up and maintain his life. But the man, like the machine, will wear out, and must be replaced by another man. Beside the mass of necessaries required for his own maintenance, he wants another amount of necessaries to bring up a certain quota of children that...
Сторінка 12 - It might seem that if the value of a commodity is determined by the quantity of labour bestowed upon its production, the lazier a man, or the clumsier a man, the more valuable his commodity, because the greater the time of labour required for finishing the commodity. This, however, would be a sad mistake. You will recollect that I used the word "social labour," and many points are involved in this qualification of "social.