An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: To which are Now First Added, I. An Analysis of Mr. Locke's Doctrine of Ideas, on a Large Sheet. II. A Defence of Mr. Locke's Opinion Concerning Personal Identity, with an Appendix. III. A Treatise on the Conduct of the Understanding. IV. Some Thoughts Concerning Reading and Study for a Gentleman. V. Elements of Natural Philosophy. VI. A New Method of a Common Place-book Extracted from the Author's Works, Հատոր 2

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T. Tegg, 1828
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Simple ideas may be false in reference to others of the same name but are least liable to be
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Ideas of mixed modes most liable to be false in this sense
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Or at least to be thought false
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Whereof there are probably numberless species
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And why 13 As referred to real existences none of our ideas can be false but those of substances
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First simple ideas in this sense not false and
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Though one mans idea of blue should be different from anothers
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Instance liquor of the nerves
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Secondly modes not false
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Identity of animals
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Truth or falsehood always supposes affirmation or negation
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SECT
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But are false first when judged agreeable to another mans idea without being
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Secondly when judged to agree to real existence when they do
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Thirdly when judged adequate without being
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Fourthly when judged to represent the real essence
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Ideas when false
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More properly to be called right or wrong
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But not so arbitrary as mixed modes
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Though very imperfect
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Which yet serve for common converse
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But make several essences signified by the same name
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The more general our ideas are the more incomplete and partial they
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This all accommodated to the end of speech
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SECT
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Men make the species Instance gold
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Though nature makes the similitude
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And continues it in the races of things
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Each abstract idea is an essence
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CHAPTER XXVII
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Identity of
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Identity suited to the idea 8 Same man 9 Personal identity
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Consciousness makes personal identity 11 Personal identity in change of substances 1215 Whether in the change of thinking substances
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Consciousness makes the same person 17 Self depends on consciousness
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1820 Objects of reward and punishment
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Philosophical law the measure of virtue and vice
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SECT
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Its enforcements commendation and discredit 13 These three laws the rules of moral good and evil 14 15 Morality is the relation of actions to these r...
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The denominations of actions often mislead us 17 Relations innumerable 18 All relations terminate in simple ideas 19 We have ordinarily as clear or ...
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CHAPTER XXIX
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OF TRUE AND FALSE IDEAS
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CHAPTER XXXIII
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Something unreasonable in most men 2 Not wholly from selflove 3 Nor from education 4 A degree of madness
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CHAPTER II
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mixed modes and substances
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CHAPTER V
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CHAPTER VIII
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This should teach us moderation in imposing our own sense of old authors
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SECT CHAPTER X
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1012 Instances
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Secondly a steady application of them 6 Thirdly affected obscurity by wrong application 7 Logic and dispute have much contributed to this 8 Callin...
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As useful as to confound the sound of the letters 12 This art has perplexed religion and justice
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And ought not to pass for learning 14 Fourthly taking them for things
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Ideas some clear and distinct others obscure and confused 2 Clear and obscure explained by sight
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Instance in matter 16 This makes errors lasting 17 Fifthly setting them for what they cannot signify 18 V g putting them for the real essences of subst...
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Hence we think every change of our idea in substances not to change the species
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This abuse contains two false suppositions 22 Sixthly a supposition that words have a certain and evi dent signification
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When the variation is to be explained
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Because of their minuteness
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Hence no science of bodies
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Much less of spirits 28 Secondly want of a discoverable connexion between ideas we have
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Instances
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Thirdly want of tracing our ideas
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Extent in respect of universality
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CHAPTER IV
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Answer not so where ideas agree with things 4 As first all simple ideas do 5 Secondly all complex ideas except of substances 6 Hence the reality of m...
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man and beast answered
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1416 Farther instances of the effects of the association of ideas 17 Its influence on intellectual habits 18 Observable in different sects 19 Conclusion
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Words and species 18 Recapitulation
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Common terms and phrases

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Էջ 78 - Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die. And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bare grain ; it may chance of wheat, or of some other grain. But God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him ; and to every seed his own body.
Էջ 333 - For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts ; even one thing befalleth them : as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath ; so that a man hath no pre-eminence above a beast : for all is vanity. All go unto one place ; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.
Էջ 74 - For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.
Էջ 55 - I think, is a thinking intelligent being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing, in different times and places...
Էջ 158 - Conceptions; and to make them stand as marks for the Ideas within his own Mind, whereby they might be made known to others, and the Thoughts of Men's Minds be conveyed from one to another.
Էջ 159 - It may also lead us a little towards the original of all our notions and knowledge, if we remark how great a dependence our words have on common sensible ideas; and how those which are made use of to stand for actions and notions quite removed from sense, have their rise from thence, and from obvious sensible ideas are transferred to more abstruse significations, and made to stand for ideas that come not under the cognizance of our senses...
Էջ 288 - But yet if we would speak of things as they are, we must allow that all the art of rhetorick, besides order and clearness, all the artificial and figurative application of words eloquence hath invented, are for nothing else but to insinuate wrong ideas, move the passions, and thereby mislead the judgment, and so indeed are perfect cheats...
Էջ 162 - Words in their primary or immediate signification, stand for nothing but the ideas in the mind of him that uses them, how imperfectly soever, or carelessly, those ideas are collected from the things which u2 they are supposed to represent.
Էջ 387 - The mathematician considers the truth and properties belonging to a rectangle or circle only as they are in idea in his own mind. For it is possible he never found either of them existing mathematically, ie precisely true, in his life.
Էջ 289 - ... harangues and popular addresses, they are certainly, in all discourses that pretend to inform or instruct, wholly to be avoided; and where truth and knowledge are concerned, cannot but be thought a great fault, either of the language or person that makes use of them.

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