An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840
This book, like its companion volume, An Historical Geography of Europe 450 BC-AD 1330, seeks to examine the complex of natural and man-made features that have influenced the course of history and have been influenced by it. It follows the general pattern of the earlier volume and spans the period from the early sixteenth century to the eve of the Industrial Revolution in continental Europe, approximately 1500 to 1840. It first presents a picture of the geography of Europe - political, social and economic - in the early sixteenth century, and it ends with a similar picture of continental Europe in the early nineteenth. The intervening period of about three centuries is too short to be presented in a series of cross-sections. Instead, between these two horizontal pictures a series of vertical studies has been inserted. These trace the development of the main facets of European geography during this period. There are chapters on population, urban development, agriculture, manufacturing and trade and transport. As in the earlier volume, no attempt has been made to include either the British Isles or Russia, and these are referred to only incidentally.
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The population of Europe from the sixteenth to
after Franz Der Dreissigjahrige Krieg
The pattern of cities
Agriculture from the sixteenth to the nineteenth
Manufacturing and mining
The pattern of trade
Europe on the eve of the Industrial Revolution
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agriculture Alps amongst Antwerp areas Baltic Baltic region became began Bohemia bread grains canal cent central Europe centres cereals cloth industry coal coalfield commercial continental Europe cotton craft crops cultivation decline demand developed Dutch early sixteenth century eastern economic eighteenth century European export farming Flanders forests France French Germany grew growth Habsburg harvest hectares Hist important increased iron Italian Italy kilometres labour land later Middle Ages less linen Low Countries manufacture Mediterranean merchants metal Middle Ages migration mountains Napoleonic Wars navigation Netherlands nineteenth century Normandy north-western northern France oats Paris peasant period plough Poland population ports production Prussia region Revolution Rhine Rhineland river rural Scheldt seventeenth century ships siècle sixteenth century smelting soil southern Europe Spain spread square kilometre supply Sweden textile industries timber tonnes trade transhumant transport urban valley Venice Verviers villages western Europe wheat wine winter woollen yield-ratios