An Introduction to Agroforestry

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 1993 - Nature - 499 pages
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Agroforestry has come of age during the past fifteen years. During this period, activities and interest in agroforestry education and training have increased tremendously, as in other aspects of agroforestry development. Today, agroforestry is taught at the senior undergraduate and postgraduate levels in many institutions around the world, either as a separate subject or as a part of the regular curricula of agriculture, forestry, ecology, and other related programs. Although several books on the subject have been published during the past few years, there is still no single publication that is recognized as a textbook. This book is an effort to make up for this deficiency. The need for such a book became obvious to me when I was faced with the task of teaching a graduate-level course in agroforestry at the University of Florida five years ago. Subsequently, the Second International Workshop on Professional Education and Training held here at the University of Florida in December 1988 recommended that the preparation of an introductory textbook be undertaken as a priority activity for supporting agroforestry education world-wide. The various educational and training courses that I have been involved in, and my interactions with several instructors and students of agroforestry in different parts of the world, further motivated me into this venture.
 

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Contents

The history of agroforestry
3
References
11
Definition and concepts of agroforestry Community forestry farm forestry and social forestry
13
Community forestry farm forestry and social forestry
16
References
17
Agroforestry systems and practices
19
Classification of agroforestry systems
21
31 Structural classification of systems
24
151 Beneficial effects
271
152 Adverse effects
273
References
274
Nutrient cycling and soil organic matter
277
162 Nutrient cycling in agroforestry systems
283
163 Improving nutrientcycling efficiency through management
288
164 Soil organic matter
289
165 Litter quality and decomposition
291

32 Classification based on function of systems
26
33 Ecological classification
28
34 Classification based on socioeconomic criteria
30
35 A framework for classification
31
36 Agroforestry systems and practices
32
References
35
Distribution of agroforestry systems in the tropics
39
42 Distribution of tropical agroforestry systems
41
43 Agroecological spread of tropical agroforestry systems
48
References
53
Shifting cultivation and improved fallows
55
52 Soil management and shifting cultivation
60
53 The evolution of planted fallows
63
54 Improved tree fallows
68
References
71
Taungya
75
61 Soil management
78
62 Alternativesimprovements to Taungya
79
References
83
Homegardens
85
72 Structure of homegardens
91
73 Food production from homegardens
94
74 Research on homegarden systems
95
References
96
Plantation crop combinations
99
81 Integrated landuse systems with plantation crops
100
a notable example of integrated landuse
103
83 Crop combinations with other plantation crops
115
84 Multistory tree gardens
117
References
121
Alley cropping
123
91 Nutrient yield
125
92 Effect on soil properties and soil conservation
127
93 Effect on crop yields
130
94 Future directions
134
References
137
Other agroforestry systems and practices
141
102 Agroforestry for fuelwood production
144
103 Intercropping under scattered or regularly planted trees
146
104 Agroforestry for reclamation of problem soils
150
105 Underexploited trees in indigenous agroforestry systems
152
106 Bufferzone agroforestry
153
References
155
Agroforestry species
159
General principles of plant productivity
161
112 Plant productivity
165
113 Manipulation of photosynthesis in agroforestry
167
References
170
Agroforestry species the multipurpose trees
171
121 Multipurpose trees MPTs
172
122 Herbaceous species
182
References
183
Short descriptions of Multipurpose Trees and Shrubs MPTs commonly used in agroforestry systems
201
Component interactions
243
131 Positive productionenhancing interactions
245
132 Negative productiondecreasing interactions
249
133 Component management
254
References
255
Soil productivity and protection
259
Tropical soils
261
142 Tropical soils
263
References
266
Effects of trees on soils
269
166 Trees and biomassproduction
296
167 Role of roots
297
168 Conclusions
301
References
303
Nitrogen fixation1
307
171 Rhizobial plants4
308
172 Actinorhizal plants5
311
173 Estimation of nitrogen fixation
312
174 Technology for exploiting nitrogenfixing trees in agroforestry
315
175 Future trends in N2 fixation research in agroforestry
319
Soil conservation
325
182 Measurement of soil erosion
327
183 Effect of agroforestry on erosion factors
328
184 Erosion rates under agroforestry
331
185 Trees as windbreaks and shelterbelts
333
186 Erosion control through agroforeslry in practice
338
References
343
Design and evaluation of agroforestry systems
345
The diagnosis and design D D methodology
347
192 Concepts and procedures of D D
348
193 Key features of D D
351
194 Variable scale D D procedures
352
195 Comparison of D D with similar methodologies
355
References
356
Field experiments in agroforestry
357
different perspectives
358
202 Principles of field experimentation
361
203 Special considerations in agroforestry experiments
362
204 The current state of agroforestry field experimentation
368
205 Prognosis of the directions in agroforestry research
370
References
372
Onfarm research
375
212 Modified stability analysis of onfarm trial data
377
213 Onfarm research in agoforestry
379
214 Methodologies for onfarm research in agroforestry
380
215 Conclusions
382
Economic considerations
385
222 Financial and economic analyses
389
223 Project analysis
391
224 Past and recent economic studies of agroforestry
406
225 Conclusions
408
Sociocultural considerations
413
232 Important sociocultural factors in agroforestry
414
the experts ignorance
418
234 Government policies and agroforestry implementation
421
235 Social acceptability of agroforestry
423
References
425
Evaluation of agroforestry systems
429
242 Sustainability evaluation
432
243 Adoptability evaluation
434
244 Towards development of a methodology for evaluating agroforestry systems
435
References
438
Agroforestry in the temperate zone
441
Agroforestry in the temperate zone
443
252 Historical perspective
445
253 Current temperatezone agroforestry systems
446
254 Opportunities and constraints
462
References
465
Glossary
469
List of acronyms and abbreviations1
483
SI units and conversion factors
485
Subject Index
491
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Advances in Agronomy, Volume 82

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About the author (1993)

Dr. P.K.R. Nair is Professor of Agroforestry at the University of Florida, Gainesville, USA and has been a founder-scientist at the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya for about 10 years. He is a leading world authority and a pioneering researcher and educator in agroforestry.

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