An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves, Volume 1

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Academic Press, 2002 - Science - 276 pages
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Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances.

Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation.
An accompanying CD-ROM contains real data, computer codes for data analysis, and linear gravity wave models to further enhance the reader's understanding of the book's material. Foreword is written by Prof. George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interactions of gravity waves with turbulence.

CD containing real data, computer codes for data analysis and linear gravity wave models included with the text
 

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Contents

FOREWORD
xv
PREFACE
xvii
I
1
SOME WAVE MECHANICS
6
FRAMES OF REFERENCE
9
WAVE PHASE AND WAVE SPEED
10
GROUP VELOCITY
14
WAVE DISPERSION
17
THE STABIL1TY OF SHEAR FLOWS
136
WAVEMODULATED RICHARDSON NUMBER
141
WAVETURBULENCE COUPLING
144
JEFFERYS ROLLWAVE INSTABILITY MECHANISM
149
WAVE SATURATION AND WAVE BREAKING
156
SATURATION PARAMETERIZATION SCHEMES
162
ANALOG PARAMETERIZATION SCHEMES
169
SATURATION LIMITS AND OTHER PROBLEMS
177

THE BOUSSINESQ APPROXIMATION
22
THE TAYLORGOLDSTEIN EQUATION
26
A SIMPLE SOLUTION
31
CONSTANT BACKGROUND WIND SPEED
37
THE WKB METHOD
39
ENERGETICS
40
II
47
UNIFORM FLOW OVER A SURFACE CORRUGATION
51
PHASE SPEED AND GROUP VELOCITY OVER A SURFACE CORRUGATION
56
ENERGY FLUX OVER A SURFACE CORRUGATION
58
THE TWODIMENSIONAL RIDGE
59
THE THREEDIMENSIONAL MOUNTAIN
66
GRAV1TY WAVE DRAG
71
MATHEMATICAL DERIVATION
72
THE VARIATION OF WAVE STRESS WITH HEIGHT
74
WAVE STRESS OVER A SURFACE CORRUGATION
76
WAVE STRESS OVER AN ISOLATED RIDGE
77
SECONDARY EFFECTS OF TERRAININDUCED WAVE DRAG
80
WAVE REFLECTION AT AN ELEVATED LAYER
86
WAVE TRAPPING ENERGY FLUX AND WAVE RESONANCE
91
REFLECTION AT THE GROUND SURFACE
94
WAVE DUCTS
98
THE WIND DUCT
101
WIND SPIRALS AND DUCTS
107
III
111
WAVE ACTION
112
IV
125
SHEAR INSTABILITY AND UNSTABLE MODES
129
KELVINHELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY
130
SINGLESTATION OBSERVATIONS
182
FREEBALLOON SOUNDINGS
183
3 REMOTE SENSORS
185
MULTIPLE STATION OBSERVATIONS
192
PRESSURE PERTURBATION MEASUREMENTS
194
BALLOONS AIRCRAFT AIRGLOW AND SATELLITES
203
AIRCRAFT
204
AIRGLOW
205
SATELLITES
206
DATA ANALYS1S
210
PRESSUREWIND CORRELATION
211
LAG ANALYSIS
214
BEAMSTEERING
217
WAVELET ANALYSIS
221
NUMERICAL MODELS
227
TERRAINGENERATED GRAVITY WAVE
229
DUCTED GRAVITY WAVES
233
V
237
THE SCALE HEIGHT OF THE ISOTHERMAL ATMOSPHERE
238
BOUSSINESQ RELATIONS
239
A6 THE GEOSTROPHIC WIND
240
VI
245
B2 FORTRAN CODES
246
RIDGE_CFOR AND RIDGEJXFOR
247
WIND JUCT_SCANFOR AND WIND_DUCT_MODESFOR
248
SYNTHETIC WAVE DATA
249
BIBLIOGRAPHY
251
INDEX
263
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Carmen Nappo received his Ph.D. in Geophysical Sciences from The Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. His research topic was gravity-wave stress over topography in the planetary boundary layer. His professional career began in 1968 at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ. where he performed diagnostic studies and evaluations of global-scale atmospheric models. In 1971, he transferred to the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division, in Oak Ridge, TN where we worked until retiring in 2005. In 1994, Dr. Nappo received the American Meteorological Society's Editors Award for his reviews for the Journal of Applied Meteorology and in 2006 he received the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Distinguished Career Award. Dr. Nappo has published over 100 scientific papers, seven book chapters, and helped organize international scientific workshops and symposia. He has been a guest scientist and lecturer at universities and institutions in Australia, Germany, South Korea, Sweden, The Netherlands, Turkey, and the USA. Dr. Nappo resides in Knoxville, Tennessee with his wife Joan MacReynolds and their cat Lily.

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