An Introduction to Computer Graphics and Creative 3-D Environments

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 19, 2008 - Computers - 480 pages
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This book introduces the fundamentals of 2-D and 3-D computer graphics. Additionally, a range of emerging, creative 3-D display technologies are described, including stereoscopic systems, immersive virtual reality, volumetric, varifocal, and others.

Interaction is a vital aspect of modern computer graphics, and issues concerning interaction (including haptic feedback) are discussed. Included with the book are anaglyph, stereoscopic, and Pulfrich viewing glasses. Topics covered include: - essential mathematics, - vital 2-D and 3-D graphics techniques, - key features of the graphics, - pipeline, - display and interaction techniques, - important historical milestones.

Designed to be a core teaching text at the undergraduate level, accessible to students with wide-ranging backgrounds, only an elementary grounding in mathematics is assumed as key maths is provided. Regular ‘Over to You’ activities are included, and each chapter concludes with review and discussion questions.

 

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Contents

Setting the Scene
1
12 The Nature of Computer Graphics
3
121 Flight Simulation and Computer Games Applications
5
122 Medical Applications
8
123 Electronic Computer Aided Design ECAD
9
13 The Evolution of Computer Graphics
11
Image Refresh
28
141 The Vector Display
30
562 Motion Parallax
243
57 Discussion
244
59 Feedback to Review Questions
254
Into the Third Dimension Transformations
255
62 Basic Transformations in 3D
256
621 Translation
260
623 Rotation About a Coordinate Axis
261
624 Reflection in a Coordinate Plane
263

142 The Bitmapped Approach
33
15 Display Hardware
34
151 Cathode Ray Tube Based Displays
35
152 The Direct View Storage Device DVSD
39
154 Liquid Crystal Thin Panel Displays
44
155 Field Emission Thin Panel Displays
46
162 Coding Techniques
47
17 Discussion
63
18 Review Questions
65
A Maths Primer
67
22 Cartesian Polar and Homogeneous Coordinate Systems
68
222 Polar Coordinates
69
223 Homogeneous Coordinates
71
23 The Line
72
The Parametric Description
73
232 The Perpendicular Bisector
75
24 Vectors in a 2D Space
76
243 Specifying Vectors
77
244 The Magnitude Modulus of a Vector
78
246 Reversing the Direction of a Vector
80
248 The Unit Vector
81
2410 Direction Cosines
83
25 Matrices
87
251 Addition and Subtraction of Matrices
88
253 The Inverse of a Matrix
92
254 Multiplication by a Constant
94
255 Concerning Row and Column Vectors
95
256 Using Matrices to Solve Equations
96
26 Concerning Curves
97
261 The Parabola
98
262 The Circle
99
263 The Archimedes Spiral and Rose Curves
101
de Casteljau Algorithm
103
28 Discussion
105
29 Review Questions
106
295 Curves
107
2103 Vectors
108
Images in a 2D Space
111
32 Some Basic Considerations
112
321 Model Formation
113
33 Transformations Using 2 by 2 Matrices
117
332 Object Rotation
118
333 Object Reflection
120
334 Object Translation
121
341 Combining Three or More Transformations
124
351 Incorporating Multiple Transformations in a Single Matrix
127
36 Concerning Graph Theory
128
361 The Location of a Point Relative to a Boundary
131
37 Clipping Points and Lines
134
The Cohen Sutherland Algorithm
135
373 The Liang and Barsky Algorithm
140
38 Clipping Polygons
146
39 Discussion
151
311 Feedback to Review Questions
152
Curves in 2D Space
153
42 A Little Calculus
154
421 The Differentiation Process
156
422 Finding the Gradient of a Curve Described by a Cartesian Equation
159
423 Dealing with Parametric Equations
160
43 Interpolation
161
431 Linear Interpolation
162
432 NonLinear Blending Functions
165
44 Bézier Curves
168
441 Characteristics of Bézier Curves
172
45 Spline Functions and BSplines
175
451 Generating BSpline Blending Functions
179
452 NonUniform BSplines
184
46 Continuity
185
47 Discussion
189
48 Review Questions
190
Interfacing with the Visual System
193
52 The Eye
195
522 The Focusing System
197
523 Perception of Colour
198
524 The Dynamic Range
201
525 Acuities
204
53 Cues to Depth
206
531 Static Scenes
207
532 Dynamic Scenes
208
54 An Overview of Various Pictorial Depth Cues
210
542 Height in the Visual Field
211
543 Aerial Perspective
212
544 Familiar Size
214
546 Texture
223
547 Linear Perspective
225
55 Oculomotor Depth Cues
233
56 Binocular Cues
236
561 Binocular Parallax Stereopsis
238
63 The Vector Product
265
64 Combining Transformations
269
642 Rotation about an Arbitrary Axis
271
65 Perspective Revisited
279
652 Object Orientation and Location
281
653 The Vanishing Point Revisited
283
66 Frames of Reference and the Virtual Camera
287
663 Viewing Coordinate System
288
67 Discussion
291
68 Review Questions
292
3D Graphics Representation
295
72 Polygonal Models
296
721 An Extrusion Approach
299
722 Surface of Revolution
300
723 A Laser Based Scanning System
302
The Plane
308
742 The Normal Vector
311
743 Plane Representation Using Three Vectors
312
Parametric Form
315
Scalar Product Form
316
Some General Remarks
318
752 Interaction
319
753 Number of Polygons
320
76 Surface Construction Using Bézier Patches
321
761 Using Matrices to Represent Bézier Curves and Surfaces
324
762 Joining Bézier Surfaces
325
77 Constructive Solid Geometry
326
78 Discussion
332
710 Feedback to Review Questions
333
3D Graphics Rendering Mainly
335
The World Coordinate System
337
83 The Viewing Volume
338
84 Culling Clipping and the Perspective Projection
339
841 Clipping to the View Frustum
341
842 Clipping to the View Window
342
86 Clipping for Opacity
343
861 The ZBuffer Technique
344
862 The Painters Technique
345
87 Shading and Colour
347
871 Diffuse and Specular Reflection
348
873 A World Without Shadows
352
88 Ray Casting and Ray Tracing
354
89 Discussion
355
810 Review Questions
356
Creative 3D Display Techniques
359
General Characteristics
361
922 Forms of Image Space
363
93 Stereoscopic Techniques
376
931 Creating Stereoviews
378
932 Noncoded Stereoscopic Techniques
379
933 Chromatically Coded Images
382
934 Temporally Coded Images
383
935 Spatially Coded Images
384
Supporting Motion Parallax
385
95 Volumetric Display Techniques
389
951 Display Subsystems
393
952 Swept Volume Volumetric Displays
394
953 Static Volume Volumetric Displays
405
96 Varifocal Systems
409
97 Holographic Techniques
412
971 General Issues
413
972 Computed Holography
414
98 Discussion
417
99 Review Questions
422
Interaction and Haptic feedback
423
1011 Medical Training
424
1012 Creative Design
425
102 Concerning Interaction
426
103 Somatosensory Perception
430
1031 Cutaneous Sensitivity
432
1032 Proprioception
433
1033 The Frequency Characteristics of the Human Haptic System
434
104 Traditional Interaction
437
1041 Synergistic Bimanual Interaction
439
105 Haptic Feedback
441
1051 Support for Haptic Feedback
444
106 Discussion
447
Maths Some Useful Results
449
The Curvature of a Varifocal Mirror
453
The Scalar Product
457
Concerning the Plane
461
D2 Determining the Intersection of a Line with a Plane
462
D3 The Intersection of Two Planes
466
Feedback to Selected OTU Exercises
469
References
487
Index
495
Copyright

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About the author (2008)

BARRY BLUNDELL, PhD, was formerly a lecturer in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

ADAM SCHWARZ, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Physicist at the Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

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