An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement: Using the GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement)
Measurement shapes scientific theories, characterises improvements in manufacturing processes and promotes efficient commerce. In concert with measurement is uncertainty, and students in science and engineering need to identify and quantify uncertainties in the measurements they make. This book introduces measurement and uncertainty to second and third year students of science and engineering. Its approach relies on the internationally recognised and recommended guidelines for calculating and expressing uncertainty (known by the acronym GUM). The statistics underpinning the methods are considered and worked examples and exercises are spread throughout the text. Detailed case studies based on typical undergraduate experiments are included to reinforce the principles described in the book. This guide is also useful to professionals in industry who are expected to know the contemporary methods in this increasingly important area. Additional online resources are available to support the book at www.cambridge.org/9780521605793.
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accuracy Allan variance autocorrelation base units best estimate best ﬁt calibration report central limit theorem chapter coins combined standard uncertainty constant correction coverage factor coverage interval data in table deﬁned deﬁnition degrees of freedom determine diameter digit DMM drift electrical ESDM example Exercise expanded uncertainty experimental expressed Figure ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁtting ﬁve gauge blocks Gaussian distribution given implies indicates inﬂuences Josephson effect kilogram length level of conﬁdence mass measurand measured values metre metrology number of degrees parameters population preﬁxes probability density distribution proportional uncertainty random errors readings repeat measurements residuals resistance resistor result scatter scientiﬁc score sequence shown in ﬁgure SI base unit side of equation signiﬁcant ﬁgures slope speciﬁc square standard deviation Sum of sample systematic error temperature coefﬁcient thermometer true value Type B uncertainties unbiased estimate uncorrelated uniform distribution values obtained variable variance voltage standard zero