An Introduction to Underwater Acoustics: Principles and Applications

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 2002 - Science - 347 pages
2 Reviews

Presented in a clear and concise way as an introductory text and practical handbook, the book provides the basic physical phenomena governing underwater acoustical waves, propagation, reflection, target backscattering and noise. It covers the general features of sonar systems, transducers and arrays, signal processing and performance evaluation. It provides an overview of today's applications, presenting the working principles of the various systems.

From the reviews:

"Presented in a clear and concise way as an introductory text and practical handbook, the book provides the basic physical phenomena governing underwater acoustical waves, propagation, reflection, target backscattering and noise. a ] It provides an overview of todaya (TM)s applications, presenting the working principles of the various systems." (Oceanis, Vol. 27 (3-4), 2003)

"This book is a general survey of Underwater Acoustics, intended to make the subject a ~as easily accessible as possible, with a clear emphasis on applications.a (TM) In this the author has succeeded, with a wide variety of subjects presented with minimal derivation a ] . There is an emphasis on technology and on intuitive physical explanation a ] ." (Darrell R. Jackson, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Vol. 115 (2), February, 2004)

"This is an exciting new scientific publication. It is timely and welcome a ] . Furthermore, it is up to date and readable. It is well researched, excellently published and ranks with earlier books in this discipline a ] . Many persons in the marine science field including acousticians, hydrographers, oceanographers, fisheries scientists, engineers, educators, students a ] and equipment manufacturers will benefit greatly by reading all or part of this text. The author is to be congratulated on his fine contribution a ] ." (Stephen B. MacPhee, International Hydrographic Review, Vol. 4 (2), 2003)

 

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Contents

The development of underwater acoustics
1
112 Influence of the propagation medium
2
113 Structure of sonar systems
4
114 Signal processing
5
122 World War II
6
124 Civilian developments
7
131 Military applications
8
Underwater acoustic wave propagation
11
523 Source level
149
524 Near field and far field
150
525 Maximum transmission level cavitation
152
53 Transducer and array directivity
154
532 Theoretical results for simple geometry antennas
156
533 Combining directivity patterns
159
534 Directivity of wideband signals
160
535 Beamforming
162

21 Acoustic waves
12
212 Velocity and density
13
214 The ware equation and its elementary solutions
14
215 Intensity and power
16
decibels and referennces
17
222 Absolute references and levels
18
231 Geometrical spreading losses
19
233 Conventional propagation loss
23
234 Effect from air bubbles
24
24 Multiple Paths
26
242 Seasurface interference
27
243 An ideal model of multipath propagation
28
244 Average energy flux in a waveguide
31
245 General sound field prediction
33
25 Other deformations of underwater acoustic signals
34
252 Time characteristics of the echoes
35
26 Sound velocity measurements
36
262 Velocity models
37
263 Sound velocity measurements
39
27 Geometrical investigation of the acoustic field
41
272 Sound ray calculations
44
273 Losses from geometric spreading
46
28 Underwater acoustic propagation case studies
47
282 Isothermal profile
48
283 Deep channel
51
29 Wave calculations of the acoustic field
54
291 Modal method
55
292 Numerical solution of the ware equation
59
Reflection backscattering and target strength
61
31 Wave reflection on a plane interface
62
312 Reflection on a layered medium
68
32 Backscattering from a target
69
322 Target strength
71
33 Point targets
73
332 Fluid spheres
75
334 Target strength of fish
77
335 Arbitrarily shaped target
78
336 Submarine echoes
79
342 Volume backscattering
81
343 Surface backscattering
83
35 Reflection and scattering by a rough surface
85
352 Coherent reflection
87
353 Backscattered field
88
36 Reflection and scattering at ocean boundaries
94
362 The seafloor
95
Noise and signal fluctuations
103
41 Narrowband and wideband noise
104
42 Causes of underwater acoustic noise
107
422 Shipradiated noise
112
423 Selfnoise
115
424 Interference and acoustic compatibility
117
43 Two approaches to noise modelling
118
432 Spatial structure of noise intensity
120
44 Reverberation
122
442 Rererberation modelling
123
443 Consequences of reverberation
124
45 Underwater acoustic noise reduction
125
46 Environment variability and signal fluctuations
127
462 Nature of signal fluctuations
129
Transducers and array processing
137
512 Underwater acoustic sources and hydrophones
140
513 Hydrophones
145
515 Transducer installation
146
52 Transducer characteristics
147
522 Sensitivity
148
536 Array focusing
170
537 Interferometry
172
Signal processing principles and performance
179
62 Preliminary notions
180
622 Signaltonoise ratio
187
63 Signal detection with passive sonars
191
633 Narrowband detection performance
192
634 Other operations in passire sonar processing
193
64 Active sonar signals and processing
194
642 Frequencymodulated pulse chirp
197
643 Phasemodulated signals
201
65 Structure of sonar receivers
203
652 Timevarying gain
204
653 Signal demodulation
205
654 Adapted filtering
206
66 Sonar system performance
207
662 Note about the reception threshold
208
663 Performance in detection
209
664 Error probability in digital communications
212
665 Parameter estimation errors
213
The applications of underwater acoustics
217
712 Echosounding
218
713 Speed measurements
219
714 Obstacle avoidance
220
72 Military applications
221
722 Active sonars
225
73 Fisheries acoustics
228
732 Other equipment onboard fishing vessels
229
74 Marine geology and seafloor mapping
232
742 Multibeam sounders
234
743 Sediment profilers
235
744 Marine seismics
237
75 Physical oceanography
239
752 Global acoustics
241
753 Other physical oceanography applications
242
761 Acoustic positioning
243
762 Acoustic data transmission
244
Underwater acoustic mapping systems
247
82 Singlebeam sounders
248
822 Performance and limits of singlebeam sounders
252
83 Sidescan sonars
259
832 Performance and limits of sidescan sonars
264
833 Measuring bathymetry with a sidescan sonar
266
84 Multibeam echo sounder structure
268
842 Multibeam echo sounder structure
269
843 Bathymetry measurements
272
844 Sonar imaging with multibeam sounders
276
845 Performance of multibeam sounders
278
846 Examples of data collected by multibeam sounders
282
852 Sediment profiler performance
284
853 Echo formation and consequences
285
86 Seabed identification and characterisation with sonars
287
862 Singlebeam sounders
289
863 Sidescan sonars
290
865 Subbottom profilers
292
Conclusion
295
912 Reflection and backscattering
296
913 Noise and fluctuations
297
915 Signal processing
298
92 Current trends and perspectives
299
922 Underwater acoustics in perspective
301
Appendices
303
Bibliography
331
Index
341
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