## An Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Experiments in Behavioral ResearchThis second edition is still designed for graduate students and researchers in the social, behavioral and health sciences who have modest backgrounds in mathematics and statistics. Also, priority is still given to the discussion of seminal ideas that underlie the analysis of variance. With respect to the first edition, the late Jum C. Nunnally of Vanderbilt University remarked, 'Overall, there is no better text on statistics in the behavioral sciences available, and I strongly recommend it.' A new feature is the optional availability of a microcomputer software package, MICRO-ANOVA, that will enable researchers to perform all analyses presented in the text on IBM PCs or equivalent computers. The software package is available through UPA. |

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### Contents

THE NATURE AND FUNCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN | 1 |

THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE EXPERIMENT | 5 |

CONTROL OVER EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES | 12 |

STATISTICAL EFFICIENCY | 20 |

CONCLUDING REMARKS | 24 |

VARIABLES AND DESIGN ARRANGEMENTS | 27 |

A VOCABULARY FOR INDEPENDENT VARIABLES | 43 |

AN OVERVIEW OF DESIGN ARRANGEMENTS | 53 |

THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE | 247 |

THE PROBLEM OF UNEQUAL CELL FREQUENCIES | 278 |

MIXED AND RANDOM MODELS | 291 |

Concluding Remarks | 303 |

EXERCISES | 304 |

THREEFACTOR COMPLETELY RANDOMIZED DESIGNS | 307 |

A FIXED MODEL FOR THREEFACTOR DESIGNS | 311 |

THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE | 316 |

CONCLUDING REMARKS | 62 |

EXERCISES | 63 |

THE LANGUAGE AND LOGIC OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE | 67 |

SUMMATION NOTATION AND RULES | 70 |

THE LOGIC OF ANOVA | 77 |

Concluding Remarks | 97 |

EXERCISES | 98 |

THE ANALYSIS OF ONEFACTOR DESIGNS | 101 |

A MODEL FOR THE ONEFACTOR COMPLETELY RANDOMIZED DESIGN | 102 |

BUILDING A DATA MATRIX FROM THE MODEL | 115 |

THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE | 122 |

MODEL ASSUMPTIONS REVISITED | 142 |

Concluding Remarks | 157 |

EXERCISES | 158 |

BEYOND THE OVERALL F TEST | 161 |

INTRODUCTION TO MULTIPLE COMPARISONS | 164 |

PLANNED COMPARISONS | 174 |

POST HOC COMPARISONS | 196 |

MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION | 209 |

THE ANALYSIS OF TRENDS | 214 |

Concluding Remarks | 231 |

EXERCISES | 233 |

TWOFACTOR COMPLETELY RANDOMIZED DESIGNS | 237 |

THE DESIGN LAYOUT | 238 |

A FIXED MODEL FOR TWOFACTOR DESIGNS | 241 |

MIXED AND RANDOM MODELS | 339 |

Concluding Remarks | 353 |

EXERCISES | 355 |

BLOCKING REPEATED MEASUREMENTS AND COVARIANCE ANALYSIS | 357 |

DESIGNS USING A CONCOMITANT VARIABLE | 358 |

RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGNS | 361 |

REPEATED MEASUREMENTS DESIGNS | 382 |

COVARIANCE ANALYSIS | 400 |

EXERCISES | 421 |

MIXED DESIGNS | 425 |

THE ONE BETWEEN ONE WITHINSUBJECTS DESIGNS | 426 |

MIXED DESIGNS WITH UNEQUAL ns | 442 |

TWO BETWEEN ONE WITHINSUBJECTS DESIGNS | 454 |

ADDITIONAL MIXED DESIGNS | 469 |

EXERCISES | 484 |

HIERARCHICAL AND PARTIAL HIERARCHICAL DESIGNS | 489 |

COMPLETE HIERARCHICAL DESIGNS | 492 |

WITHINGROUP VARIABLES | 519 |

REPEATED MEASUREMENTS | 538 |

EXERCISES | 559 |

APPENDIX | 561 |

REFERENCES | 579 |

584 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

alpha analysis of variance ANOVA associated assume assumption behavioral between-subjects blocking variable calculated cell means chapter classrooms CM CM CM ro cn CM cn cn coefficient combinations completely randomized designs components computational formulas covariance data matrix degrees of freedom discussion equal Equation error effects estimate example experiment factor first-order interaction fixed group means hierarchical design hypothesiswise independent variable interaction effects linear main effects mean squares methods multiple comparisons null hypothesis one-factor orthogonal overall pairwise performance post hoc presented pretest procedures random variable randomized block design randomly assigned ratio repeated measurements design rH CM rH cn rH rH rH sampling distribution significant specific SS(A SS(B SS(total statistical subjects sum of squares summary table term tion treatment group treatment means treatment populations treatment variable two-factor Type I errors unequal within-groups within-subjects design within-subjects variable zero