An "agreed" Frontier: Ladakh and India's Northernmost Borders, 1846-1947
When the India-China War broke out in 1962 as the consequence of a clash over India's northern borders, few people had heard of Aksai Chin. Fewer still were aware of the circumstances in which India's borders had been defined in the course of the late nineteenth country. This book gives a succinct account of the way in which Aksai Chin and other parts of this remote and forbidding territory first became known a hundred years ago, when the British attempted to explore, define and delimit the northern borders of their Indian empire. The author shows that it was personalities, as much as political factors and strategic considerations, that were instrumental in the drawing of the boundaries of Ladakh. Drawing on archival material and illustrating his argument with detailed maps, the author has provided a concise yet carefully researched study of an exciting and complex period, and of issues interesting to both the layman and the policy-maker cum strategist.
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Hardinge to Secret Committee 28 July 1847 xiv
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accept Afghan Agent Aksai Chin appear August authorities border boundary British Government Captain Chang China Chinese claims Commissioners crossed Department despatch detailed direction district earlier east eastern Elias established explorer Foreign frontier Gilgit Governor Gulab Hunza ibid important India Indus interests January July June Karakoram Kashgar Kashmir Khotan Kirghiz Kunlun Ladakh land later letter limits Lingzi Macartney MacDonald Maharaja March marked matter memorandum Minister mission mountains negotiations northern November object occupied October Office Office note Pamirs pass Peking plains Political position possession present Proc proposed question range Raskam received regard region relations Resident in Kashmir river road route ruler Russian Secret F Secretary September Shahidulla side Sinkiang survey Taghdumbash Tang territory Tibet Tibetan trade travelled Treaty valley visited watershed western Yarkand Younghusband