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The Institutional Context of the Problem
CRIMINAL SENTENCING AS A SOCIAL INVESTMENT
The Benefits and Costs of Probation 21
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actual adult felon study alternative analysis assumed average sentence average time served benefits Bureau capital punishment Census Coefficients and t-Statistics committed congestion cost cost of incarcerating county jails courts crime Crime and Punishment criminal justice expenditures criminal justice system criminal sentencing Criminology denote dependent variable deterrent effect differences Dummy variable earnings estimates EXOF expected expenditure functions facilities fenses impact imprisonment increase individual offenders individual's inmates judges jurisdictions LOGIT marginal moral hazard negative nonwhites normally normative model number of offenses offender's opportunity cost optimal sentence Percentage of prisoners period perpetrated PEXOF population positive prisoners sentenced probably probation and prison probation department probation sentence punishment random variables reducing rehabilitation relative released reported retributive value sentence length sentencing decisions sentencing model specification statistically Task Force tences tion total number types of offenses Uniform Crime Reporting vector York zero