An Elementary Treatise on Electricity

Front Cover
At the Clarendon Press, 1881 - Electricity - 208 pages
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Contents

Charges and potentials of a system of conductors
27
Energy of a system of electrified bodies
28
Work spent in passing from one electrical state to another
29
29 34 2 EF 2 JVPGreens theorem
30
Reciprocity of potentials
31
Reciprocity of charges
32
Greens theorem on potentials and charges
33
Mechanical work during the displacement of a system the poten tials of which are maintained constant
34
THE ELECTRIC FIELD 42 Two conductors separated by an insulating medium
36
EXPLORATION OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD 44 Exp XL By a small electrified body
37
Exp XII By two disks
38
Electric tension
39
xn CONTENTS Art Page 85 Coulombs law 64
40
Exp XIV Electromotive force at a point
41
Exp XVI One sphere
42
Reciprocal method Exp XVII
43
Lines of electric force
44
Faradays Law
45
Properties of a tube of induction
46
Properties of a tube of inductioncontinued
47
Energy
48
Displacement
49
Tension
50
Analogies
51
Analogiescontinued
52
Limitation
53
Faradays cube
54
Displacement
55
Theorems
56
Induction and force
57
In the inside of a hollow conducting vessel not containing any electrified body the potential is uniform and there is no electrificationcontinued
58
Thomsons theorem
59
PARTICULAR CASES OF ELECTRIFICATION 81 Concentric spheres
62
Unit of electricity Law of force
63
Electromotive force at a point
64
Value of the potential due to a uniformly electrified sphere
65
Capacity of a sphere
67
Two concentric spherical surfaces Leyden Jar
68
Two parallel planes
70
Thomsons attracted disk electrometers
71
Inverse problem of electrostatics
72
Equipotential surfaces and lines of force for charges of 20 and 5 units Plate I
73
Equipotential surfaces and lines of force for opposite charges in the ratio of 4 to 1 Plate II
74
Equipotential surfaces and lines of force for an electrified point in a uniform field of force Plate III
75
Faradays use of the conception of lines of force
76
Method employed in drawing the diagrams
77
CHAPTER VII
80
Electrical image at centre of sphere
81
External point and sphere
82
Two spheres
84
Calculation of potentials when charges are given
85
Surface density induced on a sphere by an electrified point
86
Surface density on two spheres and condition for a neutral line
87
CHAPTER VIII
89
Comparison of two condensers
91
Condition of null effect
93
CHAPTER IX
96
Displacement and discharge
98
Metals electrolytes and dielectrics
99
Anion and cation
100
Electrochemical equivalents
101
Helmholtzs experiments
102
Measurement of resistance
103
Definition of electromotive force 64
104
Theory of Clausiuscontinued
105
Molecular conductivity of an electrolyte
106
Secondary actions
107
Dielectrics 130 Displacement
108
Dielectric capacity of solids liquids and gases
109
Electrified air
119
Discharge by a point on a conductor electrified by induction
120
The electric spark
121
150 Description of the voltaic battery
122
151 Electromotive force
123
153 Magnetic action of the current
124
155 Linear conductors
125
157 Linear conductors in series
126
158 Linear conductors in multiple arc
127
159 Resistance of conductor of uniform section
128
CHAPTER X
129
Law of Magnus
130
Electromotive force measured by an area on the diagram
131
Cummings discovery
132
Thermal effects of the current
133
Thomsons effect
134
Le Rouxs experiments
135
Application of the second law of thermodynamics
136
Entropy in thermodynamics
137
Electric entropy
138
Thermoelectric diagram
139
Specific heat of electricity
140
Complete interpretation of the diagram
141
Thomsons method of finding the E M F at a point in a circuit
142
Determination of the seat of electromotive force
143
Electrolysis Deposition of metal Solution of metal
144
Heat generated or absorbed at anode and cathode
145
On the conservation of energy in electrolysis
146
Joules experiments
147
Loss of heat when current does external work
148
Example from electrolysis of argentic chloride
149
193 On constant voltaic elements Daniells cell
150
CHAPTER XI
155
On what the current depends Use of silk flaps
156
197 Production of electrification by mechanical work Nicholsons revolving doubler
158
199 Thomsons waterdropping machine
161
201 Theory of regenerators applied to electrical machines
162
202 Coulombs torsion balance for measuring charges
165
203 Electrometers for measuring potentials SnowHarriss and Thomsons
168
205 Heterostatic method
172
206 Measurement of the electric potential of a small body
173
207 Measurement of the potential at a point in the air
174
208 Measurement of the potential of a conductor without touching it
175
Art Page 209 Advantage of using material standards of resistance in elec trical measurements
176
211 The electromagnetic system of units
177
214 Eeproduction of standards
178
215 Forms of resistance coils
179
216 Coils of great resistance
180
218 Arrangement in multiple arc
181
219 On the comparison of resistances 1 Ohms method
182
220 2 By the differential galvanometer
183
221 3 By Wheatstones Bridge
186
222 Estimation of limits of error in the determination
187
223 Best arrangement of the conductors to be compared
188
224 On the use of Wheatstones Bridge
190
225 Thomsons method for the resistance of a galvanometer
192
226 Mances method of determining the resistance of a battery
193
227 Comparison of electromotive forces
195
228 Metals electrolytes and dielectrics
197
229 Resistance of metals
198
230 Table of resistance of metals
199
231 Resistance of electrolytes
200
233 Experiments of Kohlrausch and Nippoldt
201
234 Resistance of dielectrics
202
235 Guttapercha
203
236 Glass
204
238 Experiments of Wiedemann and Ruhlmann
205
Note on the determination of the current in the galvanometer of Wheatstones Bridge
206

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Page 23 - The total energy of any material system is a quantity which can neither be increased nor diminished by any action between the parts of the system, though it may be transformed into any of the forms of which energy is susceptible.
Page 2 - The fact that certain bodies after being rubbed appear to attract other bodies was known to the ancients. In modern times many other phenomena have been observed, which have been found to be related to these phenomena of attraction.
Page 56 - At every point of the medium there is a state of stress such that there is a tension along the lines of force and pressure in all directions at right angles to these lines...
Page 22 - The doctrine of the conservation of energy is the one generalized statement which is to be found consistent with fact, not in one physical science only, but in all. When once apprehended it furnishes to the physical inquirer a principle on which he may hang every known law relating to physical actions, and by which he may be put in the way to discover the relations of such actions in new branches of science.
Page 104 - Clausius explains this in the following way : — According to the theory of molecular motion of which he has himself been the chief founder, every molecule of the fluid is moving in an exceedingly irregular manner, being driven first one way and then another by the impacts of other molecules which are also in a state of agitation. This molecular agitation goes on at all times independently of the action of electromotive force. The diffusion of one fluid through another is brought about by this molecular...
Page 176 - IN the present state of electrical science, the determination of the electric resistance of a conductor may be considered as the cardinal operation in electricity, in the same sense that the determination of weight is the cardinal operation in chemistry. The reason of this is that the determination in absolute measure of other electrical magnitudes, such as quantities of electricity, electromotive forces, currents, &c., requires in each case a complicated series of operations, involving generally...
Page 125 - Here a new term is introduced, the resistance of a conductor, which is defined to be the ratio of the electromotive force to the strength of the current which it produces. The introduction of this term would have been of no scientific value unless Ohm had shown, as he did experimentally, that it corresponds to a real physical quantity ; that is, that it has a definite value which is altered only when the nature of the conductor is altered.
Page 153 - During the action of the battery copper is deposited on the copper plate, and SO4 travels slowly through the liquid to the zinc with which it combines, forming sulphate of zinc. Thus the liquid at the bottom becomes less dense by the deposition of the copper, and the liquid at the top becomes more dense by the addition of the zinc. To prevent this action from changing the order of density of the strata, and so producing instability and visible currents in the vessel, care must be taken to keep the...
Page 20 - I. The total electrification of a body, or system of bodies, remains always the same, except in so far as it receives electrification from or gives electrification to other bodies. In all electrical experiments the electrification of bodies is found to change, but it is always found that this change is due to want of perfect insulation, and that as the means of insulation are improved, the loss of electrification becomes less.
Page 188 - Of the two resistances, that of the battery and that of the galvanometer, connect the greater resistance so as to join the two greatest to the two least of the four other resistances.

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