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acid axis ball battery called cell centre charge circuit conducting conductor connected consists copper corresponding Daniell's diagram dielectric medium difference of potentials diminishes direction discharge disruptive discharge distance earth ebonite effect elec electric current electric displacement electric force electrified body electrified point electrified surface electrode electrolyte electromotive force electroscope electrostatic energy equal and opposite equation equipotential surfaces equivalent experiments external flow fluid galvanometer given point glass gold leaves heat Hence hydrogen increase indicated inductor inner sphere junction Leyden jar lines of force measured metal method negative electricity Ohm's Law passes Peltier effect places of higher places of lower plane plate platinum polarization portion positive electricity positively electrified produce quantity of electricity radius region represented resistance spherical surface substance sulphate suppose surface-density suspended disk temperature theorem thermo-electric Thomson tubes of induction unit of electricity units of positive vessel whole wire zero zinc
Page 23 - The total energy of any material system is a quantity which can neither be increased nor diminished by any action between the parts of the system, though it may be transformed into any of the forms of which energy is susceptible.
Page 56 - At every point of the medium there is a state of stress such that there is a tension along the lines of force and pressure in all directions at right angles to these lines...
Page 22 - The doctrine of the conservation of energy is the one generalized statement which is to be found consistent with fact, not in one physical science only, but in all. When once apprehended it furnishes to the physical inquirer a principle on which he may hang every known law relating to physical actions, and by which he may be put in the way to discover the relations of such actions in new branches of science.
Page 104 - Clausius explains this in the following way : — According to the theory of molecular motion of which he has himself been the chief founder, every molecule of the fluid is moving in an exceedingly irregular manner, being driven first one way and then another by the impacts of other molecules which are also in a state of agitation. This molecular agitation goes on at all times independently of the action of electromotive force. The diffusion of one fluid through another is brought about by this molecular...
Page 176 - IN the present state of electrical science, the determination of the electric resistance of a conductor may be considered as the cardinal operation in electricity, in the same sense that the determination of weight is the cardinal operation in chemistry. The reason of this is that the determination in absolute measure of other electrical magnitudes, such as quantities of electricity, electromotive forces, currents, &c., requires in each case a complicated series of operations, involving generally...
Page 125 - Here a new term is introduced, the resistance of a conductor, which is defined to be the ratio of the electromotive force to the strength of the current which it produces. The introduction of this term would have been of no scientific value unless Ohm had shown, as he did experimentally, that it corresponds to a real physical quantity ; that is, that it has a definite value which is altered only when the nature of the conductor is altered.
Page 153 - During the action of the battery copper is deposited on the copper plate, and SO4 travels slowly through the liquid to the zinc with which it combines, forming sulphate of zinc. Thus the liquid at the bottom becomes less dense by the deposition of the copper, and the liquid at the top becomes more dense by the addition of the zinc. To prevent this action from changing the order of density of the strata, and so producing instability and visible currents in the vessel, care must be taken to keep the...
Page 20 - I. The total electrification of a body, or system of bodies, remains always the same, except in so far as it receives electrification from or gives electrification to other bodies. In all electrical experiments the electrification of bodies is found to change, but it is always found that this change is due to want of perfect insulation, and that as the means of insulation are improved, the loss of electrification becomes less.