## An empirical evaluation of procedures for the identification of outliers in multivariate data |

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100 Method Pi 25 Method Pi 25 Table asymmetric contamination asymptotic variance backwards-stepping method basic subset Beta distribution Caroni and Prescott chi-squared distribution Compute covariance matrix critical values declared as outliers defined Dependet detecting outliers ellipsoid expected quantiles gap test Grubbs Hadi HD and SF high breakdown point Identification of Outliers identify outliers Independent Independet Variable Jain location estimator Lopuhaa M-estimator Mahalanobis distance masking and swamping MD and WK mean-shift model Method Pi Pi minimum spanning tree Monte Carlo Study multivariate data multivariate sample kurtosis MVE-estimator normal distribution null null hypothesis number of outliers order statistic outlier detection methods outliers in multivariate outliers in univariate outlying observations percentage points Pi MD Pi Pi Pi Projection Pursuit proposes resampling algorithm robust distance robust estimators Rosner Rousseeuw sample mean sample sizes sequential procedure Simonoff simulation study single outlier subset containing swamping problems symmetric test procedure test statistic univariate data Zomeren