## An Empirical Study on Three Methods of Problem Definition in Ill-structured Situations |

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### Contents

Heuristics and Biases | 42 |

The Methods of Problem Definition | 45 |

E Measurement | 54 |

4 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

Ackoff analysis Analysis of Variance Appendix assessment characteristics cognitive cognitive styles creative criteria David Hinds decision maker Delbecq diagnosis dimension discussed effectiveness evaluation experimental sessions experts functional fixedness Getzels given i11-structured group coordinator group process hierarchy of purposes human i11-structured problems ideas identified implemented individual initial interaction judgement Lyles methods of problem Mintzberg Nadler nature of i11-structured Nominal Group organization outcomes p-Value Pairwise Comparisons participants phase of problem possible problem definition phase problem finding problem formulation problem situation problem space problem statement reflects procedure process of problem Purpose Expansion raters ratings Rittel & Webber SAST scaling constants Scatter Diagram Schwenk selected smallest-scope purpose Solution Implication solver stakeholders step Strategic Assumption Surfacing STRUCTURE subgroups Surfacing and Testing Synectics Tape-Pause target purpose task techniques thinking three methods Two-Expert MAV Model types University of Wisconsin-Madison variables variance video-taped instructions Volkema W.K.Kellogg wicked problems