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able administration advantage age of discovery age of invention agriculture ancient world Antwerp arts attempt Black Death bullionist capital capitalists Cassiodorus centre Charles Christendom Christian cities civic civilisation colonies commercial Crown Cunningham Dutch duty East ecclesiastical economic policy eighteenth century England English Industry enterprise established Europe favourable fifteenth century fourteenth France Frankish Frankish Empire French Fuggers gave Geschichte gilds Growth of English Holland household important Inama Sternegg influence institutions intercourse interest introduced Italy Jacques Coeur kings labour lands Levasseur Lex Salica maintain manufacture maritime mediaeval mercantile merchants Middle Ages Migne military modern monasteries money economy natural economy Norsemen numbers obtained opportunities organisation Pigeonneau political population Portuguese possible practical profitable progress prosperity regulation religious rendered revenue Roman Empire Rome royal secure seventeenth century social society Spain success supply taxation territory thirteenth century tillage towns trade wealth Western
Page 8 - Cunningham believed that the Roman Empire "left little scope for individual aims and tended to check the energy of capitalists and laborers alike," whereas Christianity taught the supreme dignity of man and encouraged the individual and personal responsibility. Moreover, in the thirteenth century there were "fewer barriers to social intercourse than...
Page 281 - Tuscany knows of in mosaic-work, or in variety of enamel ; whatever Arabia shows forth in work of fusion, ductility, or chasing ; whatever Italy ornaments with gold, in diversity of vases and sculpture of gems or ivory ; whatever France loves in a costly variety of windows ; whatever industrious Germany approves in work...
Page 301 - Edited by GW PROTHERO, Litt.D., LL.D., Honorary Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and formerly Professor of History in the University of Edinburgh. The Volumes already published are indicated by an asterisk, those not so marked are in hand, for which orders are registered, and others will be added from time to time.
Page 302 - Outlines of English Industrial History. By W. CUNNINGHAM, DD, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and ELLEN A.
Page 276 - It appears, then, to be a condition of a genuinely scientific hypothesis, that it be not destined always to remain an hypothesis, but be of such a nature as to be either proved or disproved by that comparison with observed facts which is termed Verification.
Page 2 - For economic purposes it is scarcely necessary to distinguish different countries from one another in the thirteenth century, for there were fewer barriers to social intercourse within the limits of Christendom than there are to-day.
Page 79 - ... thing more and some less, some of whom want to use it in one way and some in another. Value is not objective, — intrinsic in the object, — but subjective, varying with the...
Page 267 - See above, p. 220. this economic policy were adopted more generally. In so far as any country finds that she is able without detriment to herself to modify or reconstruct her commercial policy on cosmopolitan lines, the occasions for international dispute are likely to be considerably diminished. The cessation of national economic rivalries would do much to remove the most potent of all incentives to war. When we remember how much of the fighting in all ages has been due to efforts to secure or maintain...
Page 9 - The acceptance of this higher view of the dignity of human life as immortal was followed by a fuller recognition of personal responsibility Ancient philosophy had seen that man is the master of material things; but Christianity introduced a new sense of duty in regard to the manner of using them . . . Christian teachers were forced to protest against any employment of wealth that disregarded the glory of God and the good of man.'2 It was the opinion of Knies that the peculiarly Christian virtues...
Page 78 - Their economic analysis was very defective, and the theory of price which they put forward was untenable; but the ethical standpoint which they took is well worth examination, and the practical measures which they recommended appear to have been highly beneficial in the circumstances in which they had to deal. Their actions were not unwise; their common-sense morality was sound; but the economic theories by which they tried to give an intellectual justification for their rules and their practice...