An experimental evaluation of tactical symbol-design features
Michael G. Samet, Ralph E. Geiselman, Betty M. Landee, U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Perceptronics Incorporated
U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1980 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 58 pages
Sixteen non-military participants learned each of two symbol sets (conventional, iconic) to a criterion. Each set contained three basic symbols representing unit types of armor, mechanized infantry, and infantry. After learning a symbol set, each participant was shown a series of situation displays, where some displays contained symbols coded with either perimeter-density or vector projection to convey supplementary unit-attribute information (unit strength or firepower reach) needed for typical tactical tasks. For each display, the participant was asked questions corresponding to different behavioral processes (identification, search, comparison, pattern recognition). Overall, the results suggested that iconic symbols may not necessarily be preferable to conventional symbols in certain situations; and, although the portrayal of supplemental unit information can slow some aspects of information processing, certain symbol-design features appear to create less interference than others. In a supplementary task which required integration of information from several symbols into an analytical judgment (threat value assessment), performance accuracy was found to be insensitive to the conventional versus iconic symbology comparison. The results were discussed in terms of the complexity of the implications involved in the selection of symbol design features and their correspondence with tactical concepts.
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1VAVN 60 KM reach Aavaan AAVN accuracy analysis armor unit Army Research Institute attack pattern AWHV Sn battlefield displays battlefield line behavioral processes behavioral task Blocked Iconic Symbols Channon comparison Computer Graphic conventional or iconic conventional symbols density and vector density coding display clutter Eisenhower Avenue enemy side evaluated feature perimeter density Figure firepower reach four tasks friendly and enemy friendly side Hemingway human performance mechanized infantry unit military concept niiv number of different NVWOH ONVWWOD participants pattern recognition percent strength Perceptronics portrayal of unit processing of unit-type reaction Research Institute Alexandria Samet sec versus sides blackened Sidorsky SISA1VNV situation displays squares that contain strength or firepower strength or reach symbol set symbol-design features symbology factor tactical symbols taxonomy Technical Report threat value assessment tion tN1iV tNi1V tNiiV types of units U.S. Army Research unit attributes unit symbols unit type unit-type information vector projection VOOH Woodland Hills