An Introduction to Frozen Ground Engineering
This comprehensive resource integrates the basic theory and design methods for frozen ground support systems used for construction of deep shafts, tunnels, deep excavations, and subsurface containment barriers in unfrozen ground world-wide.The extensive review of seasonally and perennially frozen ground provides information essential for infrastructure design and construction, making this volume a major sourcebook for engineers and geologists. The authors present an overview of ground conditions and the engineering methods and techniques that they require. Specific topics covered include: -- the properties and behavior of frozen ground, including physical and thermal properties; soil composition and frozen soil classification; and ice formation and soil frost action; --heat flow in soils due to seasonal freezing and to heated or cooled buildings, enabling the reader to accurately predict temperature change at the construction site; -- the ramifications of physical characteristics for engineering projects, such as thaw settlement, mechanical properties of frozen soil, and slope stability in thawing and frozen ground, giving the reader a broad perspective on construction problems; -- design and construction of frozen ground support systems; shallow and pile foundations; and laterally-loaded piles and anchors in frozen ground. Numerous worked examples facilitate assimilation of concepts and methods, and appendices provide relevant symbols, SI unit conversions, and descriptions of laboratory and field testing of frozen soils. Extensive references guide further study of particular aspects of the subject. Graduate and advanced undergraduate students of civil engineering will benefit from this practical and in-depth introduction to frozen ground engineering. It will also serve as a convenient and current reference for engineers involved in designing and overseeing construction involving frozen ground. An Instructor's Manual is also available to qualified intructors.
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PHYSICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
HEAT FLOW IN SOILS
THAW BEHAVIOR OF FROZEN GROUND
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active layer Andersland areas Atterberg limits behavior borehole clay cold regions Compute cone penetration test consolidation creep curves depth determined diameter dry density effect embankment equation excavation excess pore pressures failure Figure fine-grained soils foundation freeze pipe freezing index frost heave frost penetration frozen earth frozen ground frozen sand frozen soil frozen wall geothermal gradient gradient gravel ground freezing ground temperature heat capacity heat flow ice layer ice lenses ice-rich illustrated in Fig increase insulation Ladanyi latent heat load material method Morgenstern Nixon parameters particles permafrost pile plastic pore pressures sample saturated Sayles shear shown in Fig silt silty slope soil classification soil type solution strain rate strength stress stress-strain curves structure Table temperature tests thaw depth thaw settlement thawed soil thermal conductivity thermosiphon thickness tion ture unfrozen water content values velocity void ratio volumetric heat capacity zone