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12th cent ae/ea analogy Anglo-Norman appears in M.E. back vowel became M.E. Chaucer consonant groups dative declension dialectal differences dialects diphthongs in M.E. disappeared E.Mid e/ea e/ie early M.E. final forms fourteenth century front vowel gives M.E. glide grammatical gender i/y i/y inflectional endings influence Jjes labialised lengthening literary dialect long ae long and short long close long vowel loss of inflections M.E. period M.E. texts medial back MIDDLE ENGLISH normal nouns and adjectives O.E. ae O.E. diphthongs O.E. long o/oa o/oa occasional occurred ORTHOGRAPHIC CHANGES ousted past participle Peterborough Chronicle Phonology Plur plural preterite QUALITATIVE SOUND CHANGES remained S.W. and Kt Scandinavian short vowel shortening simple vowels singular smoothed to long spelling strong verbs survived swift swift swift teenth century thirteenth century twelfth century u/o u/o u/o u/ou ou/ow umlaut unround variations vocalised voiceless W.Mid weak verbs weakening written wulfes