## An Outline of the Theory of Thermodynamics |

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absorption of heat actions adiabatic process applied approximately assume body Boyle's Law Carnot cell change of volume coefficients components condition of equilibrium consider constant pressure constant volume cooling coordinates curve decrease deduced defined degrees of freedom determine diagram dynamics electromotive force entropy equal equations of equilibrium equivalent experiments expression external finite fluid forces forms of energy free expansion function gases given temperature gives heat absorbed Hence homogeneous hydrogen ideal gas increase independent variables infinitesimal infinitesimal change internal energy internal variables inverse irreversible isothermal changes isothermal process Joule kinetic energy latent heat law of thermodynamics Let the system liquid measured mechanical energy normal variables path phases piston plane plug possible quantity of heat reaction reduces represented result reversible cycle reversible process scale statement substance tempera thermal thermodynamic potential thermodynamic temperature thermometer triple point ture unit mass vapour variations zero

### Popular passages

Page 96 - It is impossible by means of inanimate material agency to derive mechanical effect from any portion of matter by cooling it below the temperature of the coldest of the surrounding objects.

Page 154 - For the equilibrium of any isolated system it is necessary and sufficient that in all possible variations of the state of the system which do not alter its entropy, the variation of its energy shall either vanish or be positive.

Page 155 - II. For the equilibrium of any isolated system it is necessary and sufficient that in all possible variations in the state of the system which do not alter its entropy, the variation of its energy shall either vanish or be positive.

Page 101 - ... the absolute values of two temperatures are to one another in the proportion of the heat taken in to the heat rejected in a perfect thermo-dynamic engine working with a source and refrigerator at the higher and lower of the temperatures respectively.

Page 73 - This is equivalent to saying that at constant temperature the internal energy of an ideal gas is independent of the volume...

Page 12 - CALDARIUM] 1. the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree centigrade: also small calorie, gram calorie 2.

Page 73 - Y is the compression ratio and y is the ratio of the specific heats at constant pressure and constant volume of the working fluid.

Page 168 - ClTlv which means that the latent heat of isothermal expansion is equal to the product of the absolute temperature and the rate of increase of pressure with temperature at constant volume. Thus if a body changes its...

Page 127 - ... plug is at a known constant temperature. The measurements consist in observing the rate of flow of the gas, together with its pressure and temperature both before and after it passes the plug. Before making these observations the gas is, of course, kept flowing until a steady state is established. Since the operation to which the gas is subjected is adiabatic, the increase in internal energy is equal to the work done by the outside forces. Let p, p...

Page 127 - II.) that the thermal effect is approximately proportional to the difference of pressure on the two sides of the plug.