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Japanese Distribution System in the Automobile Industry
The Parallel Imports for MercedesBenz and BMW
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after-purchase market American-made automobile manufacturers automobile market car dealers countries dealer networks declined differences between Japanese distribution channels distributors domestic efficiency exclusive dealership arrangements exclusive sales rights expensive in Japan exports Fair Trade Commission foreign manufacturers former West Germany France Furthermore gross margins high markups higher in Japan Honda increase intra-brand inventory Japan's imports Japan's ratio Japanese and imported Japanese Automobile Industry Japanese distribution system Japanese manufacturers Japanese market JFTC Kansuru Keiretsu stores Kida and Kiji large number large-sized retailers market share Maruyama Mazda MITI multi-layered wholesale structure NISSAN number of parallel OPERATING COSTS OPERATING PROFITS parallel importers price differences price gaps price survey prices of imported repair shops resale price maintenance retail margins Ryutsu sales per worker sales tie-ups sales volume sales-distribution Keiretsu sole representative importers structure of Japan suggested retail prices surplus Toyota U.S. dollar United Kingdom Urata wholesale and retail wholesale industry wholesale margins