Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 26, 2007 - Medical - 435 pages
Analgesics are among the oldest drugs described, albeit not necessarily for medicinaluse. Forexample,theSumeriansisolatedopioids(probablyfortheir euphoric effects) in the third millennium b. c. and the use of willow bark (salicin) for fever was ?rst reported in the eighteenth century. Both types of drugs are still in use, but today they are supplemented by a wide array of substances ranging from antidepressants to ion channel blockers. Not all of theseareprescribedbyphysicians. Manycompoundsaresoldoverthecounter and thus available to the public for self-medication. As a result, analgesics are also the most misused class of drugs and are the culprit for a multitude of healthproblemsdueto untoward sideeffects. Thisvolumeattemptstosummarizethecurrentstateofknowledgeonme- anisms underlying the various effects of these drugs, their side effect pro?les, and their indications and contraindications in clinical use. It also gives - sights into current efforts to discover novel mechanisms underlying different types of pain generation and the resulting development of new modulating compounds. Theseefforts haveemergedmostlyas aconsequenceofthemore profound insights provided by molecular methods and of the now common use of animal models of pathological, rather than physiological, pain. These important issues are elaborated in the introductory chapter. In parallel, c- temporaryinterdisciplinarytreatmentapproacheshavetaughtusthatsomatic mechanisms alone cannot explain pain; it is an experience shaped as well by social context, memory, and other psychological phenomena. Thus, the book closes with two chapters putting pharmacological strategies into a broader perspective. All of these advancements culminate in the contemporary c- mon goal of developing mechanism-based rather than empiric approaches to thetreatment ofpain.
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Hinz B 65
Protein Kinases as Potential Targets for the Treatment
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acid action activation acute adenosine administration allodynia AMPA analgesia analgesic analgesic effect Anesth Anesthesiology anesthetics binding block bradykinin Brain Res Ca2+ calcitonin calcium channels cannabinoid receptor capsaicin cells central sensitization CGRP chronic pain dorsal horn dorsal horn neurons dorsal root ganglion dose drugs endogenous expression function gene glutamate receptors hyperalgesia increase induced inflammation inflammatory pain inhibition inhibitors injection intrathecal involved ion channels lamotrigine lidocaine ligands MAPK mechanical allodynia mediated membrane metabotropic mGluRs mice migraine model of neuropathic modulation morphine Na+ channels Natl Acad Sci nerve injury Neugebauer neuropathic pain Neurosci NK1 receptor antagonists NMDA receptor nociceptive nociceptors noxious opioid receptors pain models pathways patients pharmacological phosphorylation placebo plasma potential primary afferent Proc Natl Acad prostaglandin protein kinase receptor agonists reduced regulation release responses role sensory neurons signaling sodium channels spinal cord stimulation Strichartz studies substance subunits synaptic targets tissue treatment trigeminal TRPV1 voltage-gated