Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms: A practitioner's guide to trade, monetary and exchange rate policy, utility provision, agricultural markets, land policy, and education, Volume 1
The analysis of the distributional impact of policy reforms on the well-being or welfare of different stakeholder groups, particularly on the poor and vulnerable, has an important role in the elaboration and implementation of poverty reduction strategies in developing countries. In recent years this type of work has been labeled as Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) and is increasingly implemented to promote evidence-based policy choices and foster debate on policy reform options. While information is available on the general approach, techniques and tools for distributional analysis, each sector displays a series of specific characteristics. Each chapter of this volume provides an overview of the specific issues arising in the analysis of the distributional impacts of policy and institutional reforms in selected sectors. Each chapter then offers guidance on the selection of tools and techniques most adapted to the reforms under scrutiny, and offers examples of applications of these approaches.
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Africa Agricultural analysis approach areas assets benefits CGE model changes Colombia commodity Computable general equilibrium consumer surplus consumers consumption costs Cote d'lvoire Deininger developing countries distributional impact domestic Economic effects employment estimate evaluation example exchange rate expenditure farm financing fiscal fixed exchange rate groups growth household surveys impact of reforms implemented important improve Indonesia inequality inputs institutions interventions investment IS-LM model Janvry labor land reform macroeconomic Malawi market reforms marketing boards measures ment Mimeo monetary monetary reform nomic ownership parastatal percent policy reform Policy Research political poor potential poverty and income Poverty Reduction private sector production PSIA reduce relative prices rental revenues rural schools stakeholders structure studies subsidies supply tariff tenure security tion trade liberalization trade policy trade reforms transmission channels typically Uganda urban utilities reform wages Washington welfare World Bank Zambia Zimbabwe
Page 25 - Reversal of reform has been frequent. In seven of the countries examined, either restrictions which were removed were reinstated, or some existing barriers were strengthened to offset reductions in others. Nigeria, though it eliminated most quantitative restrictions (quotas and licensing) increased dramatically the number of import bans. Ghana, which was the only country to make great strides in cutting formal tariffs, reversed this with the implementation of large special taxes on imports. Cote...
Page 7 - If trade liberalization and poverty were both easily measured, and if there were many historical instances in which liberalization could be identified as the main economic shock, it would be simple to derive simple empirical regularities linking the two. Unfortunately, none of these conditions is met, and so we are reduced to examining fragmentary evidence on small parts of the argument.
Page 25 - ... (quotas and licensing) increased dramatically the number of import bans. Ghana, which was the only country to make great strides in cutting formal tariffs, reversed this with the implementation of large special taxes on imports. Cote d'lvoire raised tariffs significantly, after having reduced QRs. In some cases the motive for reversal appears to be pressure from import-competing industries as they begin to experience competition from abroad (eg. Cote d'lvoire, Ghana).
Page 34 - Devarajan, Shantayanan, and Dominique van der Mensbrugghe. 2000. Trade Reform in South Africa: Impacts on Households. Paper presented at the conference on Poverty and the International Economy, sponsored by the World Bank and the Parliamentary Commission on Swedish Policy for Global Development, Stockholm. October. Dicks-Mireaux, Louis, Mauro Mecagni, and Susan Schadler. 2000. Evaluating the Effect of IMF Lending to Low-Income Countries.
Page 70 - Datt, G., and M. Ravallion, 2002. Is India's Economic Growth Leaving the Poor Behind?
Page 255 - Land Markets and the Persistence of Rural Poverty: Post-Liberalization Policy Options.
Page 207 - ... the Maputo Corridor to the transit port of Maputo. Presented at the UNCTAD Expert Meeting in Geneva, 26 November 2004. Hummels, D. (2001). Time as a trade barrier. GTAP Working Paper No. 18, University of Purdue, Indiana, USA. (http://ideas.repec.0rg/p/gta/workpp/1152.html). Kydd,). and Dorward, A. (2003). Implications of market and coordination failures for rural development in least developed countries.