Analysis and Science in Aristotle

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SUNY Press, 1997 - Philosophy - 303 pages
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Presents a new interpretation of Aristotle's Analytics (the Prior and Posterior Analytics) as a unified whole, and argues that to "loose up"or solve -- rather than to reduce or break up -- is the principle meaning which best characterizes the Analytics.

Offering a new interpretation of Aristotle's Analytics (the Prior and Posterior Analytics) as a unified whole, Patrick H. Byrne argues that a non-deductive form of ancient mathematical analysis influenced Aristotle's thinking. Reading the Analytics with this perspective in mind sheds new light on Aristotle's theories of the syllogism, demonstration, and the principles of science.

The book begins with a brief survey of ancient geometrical analysis and an investigation of Aristotle's uses of the Greek term, analuein. Byrne argues that "to loose up" or solve -- rather than to reduce or break up -- is the principal meaning which best characterizes Aristotle's Analytics. Extending this line of reasoning, he argues that for Aristotle scientific analysis commonly begins with knowledge of a "mere fact" (a conclusion) and seeks a rigorous demonstration which expresses knowledge of the "reasoned fact". Moreover, genuine analysis of a fact into a reasoned fact cannot be accomplished unless the premises of demonstrations are themselves reasoned facts. Hence the processes which yield the immediate principles (especially definitions) are next investigated through detailed examinations of key examples which Aristotle provides.

 

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Contents

The Several Senses of Analysis in Aristotle
1
B Analysis in Plato?
3
C Simple References to the Analytics
9
D Decomposition
10
E Disentanglement
11
F Analysis and the Formula
12
G Analysis of Geometrical Figures
15
H Analysis of Sorites
20
B Prior Knowledge
108
B1 The Angle in a Semicircle
109
B2 Corresponding Diminution Antanairesin
112
C Hitting on the Middle
117
D Thickening the Middle
120
E Summary
121
Hunting for Principles
123
B Immediate Premises and Defining
125

I To Reduce or to Elevate Anagein?
23
J Summary
25
Analysis of the Problem of Constructing a Square Equal to a Given Rectangle
26
Analysis of Syllogisms Foundations
29
A Analysis and the Definition of Syllogism
31
B Meaning Belonging and Being
32
C The SoCalled Immediate Inferences
40
D Figures and Moods
43
E Complete Syllogisms and NonSyllogisms in the First Figure
44
F Completing Potential Syllogisms
47
G Modal Syllogisms
51
H Summary
52
Analysis of Problematic Syllogisms
55
Finding Intermediate Terms
59
Finding Obscured Premises
62
D Book II and Arguments Per Impossibile
64
Metalogical Analyses
68
F Rules
73
G Summary
74
Logic Dialectic and Analysis in the Posterior Analytics 11922
75
Analysis and Episteme
81
A Aristotles Clarification of the Word Episteme
82
B Clarification Through Epistemic Questions
85
C Analysis and Scientific Demonstration
88
D The Criteria for Demonstrative Premises
92
E Summary
101
Finding the Middle
103
C The Two Senses of Whatitis
128
D Defining and the Preconceptual Grasp of Whatitis
130
E Whatitis Images and the Qua Locution
133
F The Genus for Which There Is No Name
137
G How Many Principles?
143
H Hunting for Whatitis
145
I Summary
146
Can to ti esti Be Demonstrated?
147
The Principle of Science Is Nous
165
A Understanding as Movement
166
B The Movers and the Perfections of Intellect
167
C Is There Episteme of Immediate Principles? The Problem of 1119
170
D Aristotles Several Senses of Episteme and Nous
179
E Habits of the Mind
181
F Nous as the Principle of Science
184
Aristotles Sciences
191
A The Analytic Character if the NonDemonstrative Sciences
192
B The Four Causes and the Analysis of Nature
196
C Analysis and the Soul
201
D Science and Necessity
204
E The Sophistic Aberration of Thought and the Control of Meaning
207
F Summary
211
Notes
213
Bibliography
269
Index
285
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About the author (1997)

Patrick H. Byrne is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Boston College.

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