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grant elements annual repayment
Additional costs associated with loans
The cost of borrowing foreign currency
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additional costs agencies alternative amount annual debt service assumed average benefits bilateral aid bullet loan calculations cash flow cheapest commercial commitment fee cost of debt cost of tying delay denominated Deutschmarks developing countries disbursed discount factors discount rate dollar domestic Donor Country equal annual instalments equipment equity finance eurobonds eurocredit eurocurrency eurodollar euroloan example expected expensive fluctuations foreign borrowing foreign currency funds grace period grant element grant equivalent groundnuts higher important income increase inflation interest and capital internal rate investment Japanese yen lenders lending LIBOR loan agreement ment million multilateral NDFC negotiation nominal interest rate normally official export credit outstanding balance payable possible present value project analysis rate of interest rate of return Real effective rate receipts reduce repay repayment period revenue risk shadow prices soft loan sources of finance spare suppliers surplus tied aid tied loan World Bank