## Analysis of sonic boom measurements near shock wave extremities for flight near Mach 1.0 and for airplane accelerationsA method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The computer was used to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separated regions and wake vortex patterns are determined. The computer program developed to perform the numerical calculations is described. |

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### Contents

SUMMARY | 1 |

ANALYSIS OF NEARSONIC FLIGHT TEST DATA | 9 |

ANALYSIS OF SAFETY FACTOR DURING THRESHOLD MACH NUMBER FLIGHT | 19 |

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acceleration from subsonic acceleration magnitude airplane acceleration airplane altitude airplane ground speed airplane Mach number analysis atmospheric attached shock waves beneath the airplane BOW SHOCK BREN tower CALCULA TED caustic intensity caustics produced caustics were produced climb angle DISTANCE FROM TOWER equation flight at Mach flight test data ft/sec given in figure ground reflection lapse rate logarithmically singular LOW-ALTITUDE NEAR-SONIC FLIGHT low-magnitude accelerations m/sec MACH NUMBER FLIGHT maneuver maximum overpressure nondimensionalized nonlinear observed caustic observed pressure signatures observed shock wave predicted pressure waves PROFILE AND TOWER PROFILES FOR PASS pullup shock front shock Mach number shock propagation speed shock wave extremity shock wave profiles SIGN A TURES signal sound speed gradients speed safety factor subsonic sonic boom subsonic to supersonic supersonic tailwind temperature and wind temperature inversion theoretical safe altitude threshold Mach number TITUDE NEAR-SONIC FLIGHT tower microphone tower top trailing shocks TURES FOR PASS U-wave un(z wind gradients