Anaphylaxis is an immediate–type allergic reaction involving the whole organism. It is the most life–threatening allergic condition. Although there are few exact epidemiological data regarding prevalence, estimates regarding insect sting anaphylaxis range from 1–3% in the general population, but much higher values have been reported by some authors for food and drug–induced anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the main acute killer of allergic individuals.
Although anaphylaxis was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, there are still many unresolved issues. These include non–IgE–mediated anaphylactoid reactions, non–immunologically mediated anaphylactoid (pseudo–allergic) reactions, pathophysiological events at the microcirculatory level, appropriate therapy for the acute reaction, strategies for prevention, public education about the problem and new approaches to prevention and therapy at the IgE level. All these subjects are discussed in this book.
Since anaphylaxis occurs acutely and is unforeseen, it is very difficult to organize controlled studies regarding therapy and prevention. The spectrum of symptomatology covers many clinical areas (skin, respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system), therefore inter–disciplinary approaches are necessary for progress in the field. There is widespread uncertainty among physicians about therapy, especially concerning self–administered treatment.
In this important book, an multidisciplinary group of experts explore the pathophysiology of different types of anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions. Evidence is presented on the epidemiology of these conditions while problems relating to diagnosis, therapy and prevention are examined in detail. This thorough and up–to–date coverage of the subject will be of great interest to all clinical immunologists, researchers and physicians who deal with this life–threatening condition.
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Stephen Galli Chairs introduction
Debra SternWaltraud Eder GinaTebow I Carla Lohman Elisa Soprana
General discussion I
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allergen allergen-specific allergic reactions Allergy Clin Immunol anaesthetic anaphylactic reactions anaphylactic shock angioedema anti-IgE antigen antihistamine asthma atopic atopy basophils binding biphasic blood cardiac mast cells cardiovascular cause cells and basophils challenge clinical contrast media coronary cytokines death degranulation detectable disease dose drugs effects epinephrine EpiPen factor fatal FceRI Finkelman Fisher food allergy food-induced anaphylaxis Galli H3 receptors heart HHMCs histamine release hypotension IgE and IgG4 IgE antibodies IgE-mediated IgGl immune immunological immunotherapy increased induce inhibit injection insect sting insect sting allergy insect venom interaction Lasser leukotriene Marone G mast cell activation mast cells mastocytosis mechanism mediator release mice molecules mouse myocardial occur Patella pathway patients peptides PGD2 plasma population produced protein Pumphrey radiocontrast receptor reported respiratory response risk Sampson Schwart sensitivity serum skin test specific IgE sting reactions symptoms systemic anaphylaxis tryptase tryptase levels urticaria venom Vercelli vitro vivo