Ancient Astronomical Observations and the Study of the Moon’s Motion (1691-1757)
The discovery of a gradual acceleration in the moon’s mean motion by Edmond Halley in the last decade of the seventeenth century led to a revival of interest in reports of astronomical observations from antiquity. These observations provided the only means to study the moon’s ‘secular acceleration’, as this newly-discovered acceleration became known. This book contains the first detailed study of the use of ancient and medieval astronomical observations in order to investigate the moon’s secular acceleration from its discovery by Halley to the establishment of the magnitude of the acceleration by Richard Dunthorne, Tobias Mayer and Jérôme Lalande in the 1740s and 1750s. Making extensive use of previously unstudied manuscripts, this work shows how different astronomers used the same small body of preserved ancient observations in different ways in their work on the secular acceleration. In addition, this work looks at the wider context of the study of the moon’s secular acceleration, including its use in debates of biblical chronology, whether the heavens were made up of æther, and the use of astronomy in determining geographical longitude. It also discusses wider issues of the perceptions and knowledge of ancient and medieval astronomy in the early-modern period. This book will be of interest to historians of astronomy, astronomers and historians of the ancient world.
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Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 Edmond Halleys Discovery of the Secular Acceleration of the Moon
Chapter 3 A Forgotten Episode in the History of the Secular Acceleration William Whiston Arthur Ashley Sykes and the Eclipse of Phlegon
Chapter 4 The Gradual Acceptance of the Existence of the Secular Acceleration During the 1740s
Chapter 5 EighteenthCentury Views of Ancient Astronomy
Chapter 6 The First Detailed Study of the Moons Secular Acceleration Richard Dunthorne
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æther al-Battānī Alexandria Almagest ancient eclipses ancient observations antiquity apogee Arabic Aracta Babylon Babylonian astronomy Bernard Walther Bullialdus Bullialdus’s calculated Cambridge century century2 Chinese astronomy chronology claim coefficient comets Copernicus correction Costard determine difference discussion Earth eclipses reported edition eighteenth eighteenth-century Équations Séculaires equinoctial hours equinoxes error Estève Euler Flamsteed Flamsteed’s Gaubil given Greek Halley Halley’s discovery Hipparchus Historia Coelestis history of astronomy Ibn Yūnus Jérôme Lalande Kepler l’Astronomie Lalande Lalande’s latitude letters to Rouse Long’s longitude lunar eclipses lunar tables lunar theory manuscript mathematical Mayer 15 Mayer’s tables mean motion Mémoire moon’s acceleration moon’s motion moon’s position moon’s secular acceleration Museum 95 Newton’s orbit Philosophical Transactions Phlegon planets Progress of Astronomy Ptolemy Ptolemy’s Ptolemy’s Almagest published records Regiomontanus reported by Ptolemy Riccioli Richard Dunthorne Royal Society Saros secular equation solar eclipse Springer Science+Business Media sun’s Sykes Theon tion Tycho Walther Whiston wrote