Ancient Egyptian Masonry: The Building Craft

Front Cover
Book Tree, 1999 - Architecture - 242 pages
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Reveals the methods Egyptians used to build their stone constructions. We marvel at the structures they built, not knowing exactly how it was done. The authors state that their explanation of the Great Pyramids construction is not the final answer and that many mysteries still remain, yet do a fascinating job in detailing how the huge stones were dressed and laid out. Many mysteries are cleared up in this book, which includes over 250 sketches and pictures that back up the authors claims. They reveal how hard work, ingenuity, and an advanced knowledge of mathematics and physics account for some of the amazing architectural feats performed in early Egypt. Yet when a mystery remains, the authors openly admit it. Any serious researcher on ancient Egypt should not be without this book.
 

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Contents

Introduction by Somers Clarke I
5
Soft Rocks
12
Hard Rocks
23
Transport Barges
34
Preparations before Building
46
STAIRS
50
Plan of the jointing of two architraves at right angles page 152
52
Foundations
69
Composite architrave in the Great Hall at Karnak
155
Sketchplan of part of the lower roof of the temple of Seti I at ElQurna showing
163
Doors and Doorways
170
Part of the great stone gateway in the brick temenos wall north of the temple
176
Windows and Ventilation Openings
176
Stairs
178
Stairway leading up to the roof of the festival temple of King Zoser at Saqqara Illrd dynasty facing f
178
Remains of a stairway in the pylon of Amenophis III at Karnak
178

Mortar
78
Handling the Blocks
84
Dressing and Laying the Blocks
90
Remains of the casingblocks of the Step Pyramid at Saqqara Illrd dynasty facing f
95
Granite casingblocks only partly faced near the entrance to the Third Pyramid at GIza showing bosses under which the points of levers engaged duri...
96
Wall of a Vth dynasty mastaba at Saqqara showing oblique rising joints
100
Masonry with blocks of unequal heights Temple of Amenophis III at Luxor
101
Plan of blocks lined up on their sleds for dressing
102
Models of blocks between each pair of which approximately parallel planes have been cut brought into close contact facing p
104
no Masonry in the wall of the funerary temple of the Vth dynasty pyramid of Unas
104
SaqqSra showing oblique joints 105
105
Ancient scene of workmen dressing a stone block
106
114119 Models illustrating the ancient manner of constructing a wall with blocks of unequal heights facing p
106
Elevation of half the facade of the small desert temple of Amenophis III at ElKSb page
108
Dovetail recess in the architraves of the Temple of the Sphinx at Giza with hole for dowel passing down into the top of the column 112
112
of Sheshonq I at Karnak 112
113
Good hollow masonry of Roman date in the temenos wall of the temple at galabsha
114
Portion of the north face and the back of the blocks of the south half of a hollow wall of Amenophis III at Luxor Temple 114
114
Western tower of the pylon of King Haremhab at Karnak 115
114
Sketchplan of the horizontal section of the north tower of Pylon II at Karnak built by Ramesses II and consisting of cells filled in with reused blocks ...
115
Masonry laid on a concave bed in house ruins at Qalabsha
116
Pyramid Construction
117
Internal construction of the pyramid of Sneferu at Meydum I Vth dynasty 119
119
Suggested method of constructing a pyramid by means of ramps running from stage to stage
120
Section of the pyramid of King Sahureof the Vth dynasty at Abusir
123
rjd Diagram illustrating suggested method of dressing the faces of a pyramid
127
Pavements and Column Bases
130
Columns
136
Architraves Roofs and Provision against Rain
151
Line of roofslabs covering the stairpassage in the ruined pylon of the Ranicsscum
179
ARCHES AND RELIEVING ARCHES
180
Arches and Relieving Arches
181
Method of constructing a brick arch without centring by means of special bricks Ramcsseum Thebes page
182
Great brick archway the inner rings of which are constructed of special arch bricks forming a centring for rings of ordinary bricks laid as in modern ...
183
False arch cut from two granite blocks in a Middle Kingdom mastaba at Dahshfir
184
False arch in the sanctuaries of the temple of Set I at Abydos
185
Arch in the eastern sanctuary of the XXVth dynasty shrines at Medtnet Habu
186
Joggled arch of Ptolemaic date from the tombs of Kom Abu Billo
187
Triumphal arch of Diocletian at Philae
188
Section of the relieving chambers above the Kings Chamber in the Great Pyramid
189
Relieving device in the gateway of Nectanebos II at Karnak 190
190
Facing Sculpturing and Painting the Masonry
192
Diagram showing that in Egyptian buildings the rising joint between the blocks does not necessarily occur at the internal corners of a wall since the fr...
193
Scaffolding in the XVIIIth dynasty from the tomb of Rakhmircat Thebes
194
235236 Masonry of the unfinished pylon at Karnak
194
One of the blocks forming the torus moulding in the unfinished pylon at Karnak showing recessing of the block and masons guide lines fage
196
Surplus stone left at the corner of the unfinished pylon at Karnak for the torus moulding facing f
196
Scene of workmen dressing the surface of a stone offeringtable with pounding balls fage
197
Proportionsquares in the tomb of Wah no 22 at Thebes
198
Proportion squares in the tomb of Tati no 154 at Thebes 199
199
Brickwork
207
Egyptian Mathematics
216
Ancient Egyptian Tools
224
Sites in Egypt and Lower Nubia mentioned in the Volume
224
Chronology
227
List of Works quoted
230
Index
233
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