Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The Archaeological Evidence

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Eisenbrauns, 1999 - Social Science - 415 pages
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This is the first systematic attempt to survey in detail the archaeological evidence for the crafts and craftsmanship of the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians in ancient Mesopotamia, covering the period ca. 8000-300 B.C.E. As creators of some of the earliest farming and urban communities known to us, these people were among the first pioneers of many crafts and skills that remain fundamental to modern ways of life. Many of the raw materials for crafts had to be imported from outside the river valley of the Tigris and Euphrates, providing an unusually sensitive indicator of the commercial and cultural contacts of Mesopotamia. In this book, Dr. Moorey reviews briefly the textual evidence, and then goes on to examine in detail the material evidence for a wide range of crafts using stones, both common and ornamental, animal products--from hippopotamus ivory to ostrich egg-shells--ceramics, glazed materials and glass, metals, and building materials. With a comprehensive bibliography, this will be a key work of reference for archaeologists and those interested in the early history of crafts and technology, as well as for specialist historians of the ancient Near East.

 

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good info but REALLY dry and and a bit boring

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mohem.mesopotamian-elephant ص119

Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
2 Resource Procurement
5
i ROUTES
6
b To the east and northeast
8
c To the south
10
b By land
12
Methods of Study
13
ii INVESTIGATING THE MATERIAL RECORD FOR CRAFT AND INDUSTRY
17
b Changes in the production of glass c16501150 bc
192
c Revival of glass production from about 9oo bc
198
ii TECHNOLOGY AND COMPOSITION
202
b Mixing and melting
203
d Composition
206
e Provenance studies
210
THE ANCIENT TEXTS AND MODERN ANALYSES
212
v THE PROBLEM OF ENAMEL
214

THE STONEWORKING CRAFTS THE COMMON STONES
21
2 Sculpture and Sculptors
23
i HISTORICAL SURVEY OF STONES USED FOR SCULPTURE
24
ii SCULPTORS AT WORK
30
a Workplaces and quarries
31
b The sculptors methods
33
3 Stone Vessel Manufacture
36
i CONCISE NOTES ON THE STONES USED FOR VESSELS
37
ii HISTORICAL SURVEY OF STONES USED FOR VESSELS
38
iii MANUFACTURE
55
b Workshops
56
d The pattern of production
58
2 British Museum
59
a Flint
60
3 Hoes and ploughshares
63
c Rock crystal
71
THE STONEWORKING CRAFTS ORNAMENTAL STONES
74
ii FOR BEADS AMULETS AND PENDANTS
77
a Historical survey
79
2 Manufacturing Techniques
103
ii BEADS
106
foreign beads in Mesopotamia
109
iii inlays
110
WORKING WITH BONE IVORY AND SHELL
111
3 Bone
112
i TOOLS
113
ii PERSONAL ORNAMENTS AND COSMETIC ARTICLES
114
4 Wild Boars Tusk
115
6 Elephant Ivory
116
ii THE ELEPHANT IN MESOPOTAMIA
119
iv METHODS OF MANUFACTURE
125
v CHEMICAL STUDIES
127
8 Tortoiseshell
128
9 Marine and Freshwater Shells
129
i SOURCES
130
ii THE REPERTORY OF USES
132
b Bangles and rings
133
d Seals
135
e Spindlewhorls
136
g Ritual and votive use of shells
137
i Select checklist of specialist shell identification
138
k Motherofpearl
139
THE CERAMIC AND GLASSWORKING CRAFTS
141
ii ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
143
iii A HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE POTTERS CRAFT IN MESOPOTAMIA
149
c55003000 bc
151
1 Unglazed wares
157
ASPECTS OF THE WIDER REPERTORY
162
2 Working with Faience
166
i THE EMERGENCE OF GLAZED MATERIALS
168
ii A HISTORICAL SURVEY OF FAIENCE IN MESOPOTAMIA
171
b The historic period
173
iii METHODS OF MANUFACTURE
181
a Cores and manufacture
182
b Methods of glazing Vandiver 1983 Tite et al 1983
184
d Notes on analyses of Mesopotamian faience
186
ii COMPOSITION AND MANUFACTURE
188
iii ANALYSES OF EGYPTIAN BLUE FROM SITES IN MESOPOTAMIA
189
i HISTORICAL SURVEY
190
METALWORKING
216
2 Precious Metals
217
c Refining and assaying
218
d Sources
219
e The repertory of objects and uses
221
J Techniques
225
iii SILVER
232
silver as money
237
e Manufacture
238
f Select analyses
239
3 Base Metals
240
iii COPPER AND ITS ALLOYS
242
b Sources
245
c Mechanical properties and varieties
249
d The repertory of objects
254
e Workshops and manufacturing equipment
265
f Techniques
269
g The use of metal tools
276
iv IRON
278
b Manufacture of smelted iron
283
c The problem of cast iron
285
e The development of ironworking in Mesopotamia
286
f The repertory of iron objects
291
v LEAD
292
b Sources
293
vi NICKEL
297
b The pattern of trade and the identification of sources
298
c Objects
301
THE BUILDING CRAFTS
302
i THE EMERGENCE OF MUDBRICKS
304
b Kilns
306
iii DECORATIVE TECHNIQUES IN MUDBRICK ARCHITECTURE
309
b Unglazed fancy brickwork
310
c Glazed brickwork
312
d Wallpainting
322
2 Plasters and mortars in building
329
ii GYPSUM AND LIMESTONE PLASTER
330
iii MORTAR
331
iv GYPSUM BRICKS
332
i AVAILABILITY
333
ii RANGE OF USE
334
4 Building in Stone
335
ii HISTORICAL SURVEY
337
b The historic period
339
5 Building with Wood
347
ii SOURCES OUTSIDE MESOPOTAMIA
349
b In the eastern Taurus and the Zagros
351
c In the Gulf and regions beyond to the Indus Valley
352
iii ILLUSTRATIONS OF TIMBER PROCUREMENT AND WORKING METHODS
353
iv TIMBER IN BUILDING
355
b Walls
356
c Columns
357
e Internal fittings
358
v WOOD IDENTIFICATIONS FOR MESOPOTAMIAN SITES PREHISTORIC TO SELEUCID
360
vi WOOD IDENTIFICATIONS FOR LEVEL IVB AT HASANLU NORTHWEST IRAN Harris MV 1989
361
i REED IDENTIFICATIONS
362
BIBLIOGRAPHY
363
INDEX
407
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