Androgenetic Alopecia: Modern Concepts of Pathogenesis and Treatment
The authors have perfected a thick-tissue preparation method for observing hair at various stages of growth, and their findings challenge the currently held three-stage common hair cycle. They have put forward a new hypothesis, the four-stage essential hair cycle, that incorporates their discovery that stem cells are located in the isthmal portion of the sebaceous gland. The essential hair cycle is then used to review the factors contributing to the process of androgenetic alopecia, or premature balding, as it is commonly called. This is followed by an explanation of some general measures for the prevention of androgenetic alopecia and a description of the treatments available.
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Structure of Skin and Hair Follicles
Preparation of Thick Tissue Specimens
Generation and Growth of Human Hair
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5a-reductase acid activity agents alopecia areata anagen stage androgenetic alopecia artificial hair atrophied axillary hair bulbous peg stage bulge catagen ceous gland coarse hair connective tissue dermal papilla dermis duct opening enzyme epidermis epithelial cells estrogen fiber flap follicular formation formed frontal germinal layer hair bulb hair cycle hair follicle hair germ stage hair growth hair loss hair matrix hair peg stage hair regeneration hair root hair-bearing graft hairline histological implantation Inaba and Inaba inner root sheath keratinization lipid lower portion male pattern baldness mass of mesenchymal matrix cells melanin granules melanocytes mesenchymal cells method minoxidil multilobular nerve observed occipital outer root sheath patients protein punch region scalp hair scar sebaceous gland sebaceous isthmus sebum single hair skin surface stem cells studies suture telogen follicle telogen hair follicle telogen stage terminal hair testosterone thick tissue tion transplantation upper isthmal portion vellus hair vibrissa young hair